March 19, Russia celebrates the Day of sailor-submariner. Interest in the submarine fleet received a major boost after President Putin told the world about the new weapon. One of the main sensation was unmanned underwater vehicle with a nuclear power plant. Invincible marine robot capable of becoming a deadly threat to American aircraft carriers. On the eve of the holiday “MK” talked to a leading expert in the field of naval strategic nuclear forces, the head of the working group on the establishment of marine robotics of the Scientific-technical Council of military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation, Deputy Director General, Krylov state research centre, Valery Polyakov.
photo: Alexander Astafyev
— Have you been dealing with problems of development of the Russian Navy, the technical appearance of the ships, their stealth, expert examination of projects… What years of the construction of our submarine fleet, in your opinion, was the most intense?
— The most intense but also the most interesting, I think, was the period 1971-1991 years, when we’ve built and went to sea. Was the first time we solved a very important task — surfacing in the Arctic ice to conduct missile launches. It was required that the lids of missile silos there’s no ice and snow, and they can be without interference to open and release the rocket. The development of such techniques was considered a task of special state importance.
What we have done? Boat first surfaced, breaking the ice, and then sink back. The commander gave a small trim (nautical term — the difference between the position of the nose and stern of the vessel. — “MK”), after which the boat again surfaced already in the cracked ice, he was rolled overboard, and it was possible to make a missile launch.
When we have been convinced of the reliability of this technique, from the side of the submarine sent a telegram to the leadership of the country: the task is completed. The entire crew that were awarded with orders, medals and state prizes.
— Which projects of strategic nuclear submarines (SSN) you believe were most successful?
— We can rightfully be proud of the strategic submarine project 667A. This is the largest series of domestic submarines, which had a large number of modifications (Soviet submarine project 667A “Navaga” (according to NATO classification — “Yankee”). Total built 34 nuclear submarine, each with 16 ballistic missiles. — “MK”). In the last project we did our best, embodying in it all the latest advances in science and technology.
These ships are the best in the world missiles. Judge for yourself: the Americans have a solid propellant missile submarines “Trident D-5” and weighs 59 tons has a payload of 2800 kg. Our rocket with the same payload, weighed only 40 tons.
A great achievement also believe that we have managed to gain ten missiles with multiple warheads, greatly increased the combat effectiveness of our submarines.
— Don’t you think that the projects of such huge submarines will soon be history? There will be a more compact fighting units of the type of underwater vehicle that was recently presented by our President?
— If we are talking about maintaining strategic stability in the world, the development of the existing Russia’s submarine fleet and particularly strategic nuclear submarines is necessary. Now the enterprises of the shipbuilding industry began the construction of multi-purpose and strategic nuclear submarines of the 4th generation “Yasen-M and Borey-A”, is developing submarines 5 th generation. Navy gets an improved diesel-electric submarines “Lada” and “Varshavyanka”.
What battle are the qualities of a missile, to meet the requirements of modern warfare?
— First of all, I’d call stealth, the ammunition and the power of missile weapons, since 80% of their combat effectiveness depends on these factors. We can say that in order to ensure strategic stability in the world, you need to meet three fundamental requirements for the potential retaliation.
First, the backlash will be inevitable. Secondly, the damage from it is unacceptable. And third, the decision-makers with the “one” side must be aware of this. That is, to be firmly convinced of the inevitability of our retaliation and the unacceptability of damage from it.
— Now many argue on what the fleet needs. To be or not to be aircraft carriers, destroyers, frigates? What do you think?
— Russia as a country with legitimate interests in the oceans and, consequently, the right to an effective naval activity, must, I think, primarily to maintain the ability to design and build ships of various classes. This means, must have the appropriate technology. In military shipbuilding fundamentally important technologies — three.
The first nuclear underwater shipbuilding. Who owns this technology, one is able to create all types of submarines, including diesel-electric.
The second — technology of surface shipbuilding. Its base carrier is a frigate, and if the shipbuilding industry is able to design and build, she is able to create destroyers, cruisers, aircraft carriers, amphibious ships.
And finally, ships of the mine-sweeping forces. This is a specific type of ships having non-magnetic body and equipment, which are widely used composite materials. Today mine weapons is a complex technical device and a traditional minesweeping operations almost impossible. Detecting mine-like device, minesweeper puts and actuates the subversive ammunition, after obtaining information from remotely operated or Autonomous underwater vehicle.
Developing these technologies is how soon we will be able to catch up with the US — the country with the most numerous and powerful fleet in the world?
— We now, for obvious reasons, difficult to compare quantitatively with the US Navy. So, our task is to create a highly effective, versatile ships with a qualitatively new equipment and weapons. The surface ship should have a high combat effectiveness, to be unobtrusive and have the ability to put enemy radar decoys, simulating the ship. In the future radar “portrait” of the ship can be changed to fool the intelligence of the enemy. And all of these tools combined with a powerful air defense system.
The role of science in this process are determined. It acquires special urgency in the conditions of financial shortage, when we need to mobilize the intellectual potential of all of the participants in the interests of national defense.
— What are the challenges in the development of military technology we need to be ready?
To him, I would primarily attributed the intensification of works on creation of robots for various purposes, including in the field of naval equipment, combat robots, sea-based.
— This is exactly what has recently told the President?
Yes. For such devices the future. In modern combat physiological human capabilities limit its ability to survive in extreme conditions. The solution is robots. Can’t talk about everything, but so far there are quite complex problems of creating an effective combat robots. Need energy-intensive battery, various miniature sensors and efficient management system. Nevertheless, we are already witnessing the emergence of the first robotic unmanned boats, underwater vehicles to collect hydrological information, etc. We are developing an integrated system of management, partial and full electric propulsion and preparing for the creation and implementation of fundamentally new types of weapons that showed the President in his recent Message to the Federal Assembly.
On the eve of the Day of the submariner commander of the Russian Navy Admiral Vladimir Korolev has informed that in the next three years the fleet will go 40 marine robots, “which are risk-free for human to carry out the survey and assisting submarines”. According to the commander, rescue teams of the Navy already has more than 150 remotely operated unmanned underwater vehicles. In addition, Admiral Korolev said that the composition of the Maritime groupings of the Northern and Pacific fleets will soon include the latest nuclear submarines of the fourth generation “Borey” type. He recalled that part is already taken and perform combat missions submarine project “Borey”: “Yury Dolgoruky” “Alexander Nevsky”, “Vladimir Monomakh”.
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