We publish the continuation of the passage from coming out of a book publicist, Advisor to the Director of Regardie Alexander Hinstein “the End of Atlantis. Why Putin will never become a Gorbachev.” A Chapter is devoted to the events in Tbilisi in April 1989.
Read the first part – “Crushing the stake head”: first published papers about the terrible Georgian events»
The morning after the fight. 9.04.1989. At the government House in Tbilisi. (Photo from the materials of the criminal case.)
The morning of 9th of April — a turning point. After the events of the night Georgia came to a standstill, not knowing how far the government is ready to go. And to raise the people to fight simply no one: the leaders of the revolution fled to the underground, cowardly interrupting all communication with the outside world. Will find them and detain only several days later in different places; Gamsakhurdia, for example, sit on a wood stock.
This, incidentally, is another proof that the toothless government, its Tolstoy neprocurement and pushed the opposition to the next active steps. From time immemorial the Caucasus was respected and revered by force: only it is considered, one recognized her.
If official Tbilisi (specifically, Moscow) from the beginning has showed resolve and the will, no “black April” would not have happened; it just could not proceed.
The extremists we can speak only from a position of strength; to remonstrate with them is to put out a fire with gasoline. Zviad Gamsakhurdia, could reinforce this truth by personal example.
In 1977, when security officers for the third time took the future President, he, too, resisted for long. Under the pressure of circumstances dissident Gamsakhurdia began to actively cooperate with the investigation, made penitential statements on television and in Newspapers, for which he received maximum leniency: the sentence (3 years in the camps) was replaced by a two-year exile in Dagestan, more like a Spa trip. A year later, Gamsakhurdia was pardoned. Quietly returned home, got a job as a senior researcher at the Institute of Georgian literature, defended her.
Self-sacrifice and heroism have never been the hallmarks of this kind. As he wrote to the General of the NKVD-MGB Pavel Sudoplatov, the famous father of Zviad, a classic of Georgian literature Konstantin Gamsakhurdia, and it was “the oldest informant of the NKVD”, and the recruitment carried it out personally Beria.
The leader of the separatists, the first President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia.
That is, it was enough to cause hereditary Snitch known in and around Tbilisi building on Lesi Ukrainki, 3, and even at all — for clarity — to take out somewhere in the location of military bases, and to explain what ends the game with fire as once he again “saw the light”. Maybe the old memory even would speak again with public repentance.
For all his heroic Opera appearance Zviad Gamsakhurdia, was a regular coward; he Avenue-Rustaveli bolted, barely-there smell of fried. And when, in August 1991 will start “operetta coup” a democratic President, shaking with horror, on the first day, August 19, rush to fight off a telegram to Moscow: actions of the emergency Committee fully support and endorse…
Take the time Gorbachev to make the right personnel decisions, continued he started solid line — future civil war in Georgia could be avoided. But alas. Deng Xiao Pin in the Kremlin did not yet exist.
The blood in Tbilisi to the core scared of the Secretary General: most of all he was worried about his international reputation. That would cost no casualties, some persuasion and promises, then Yes, Gorbachev with pleasure tried on the laurels of a mediator-peacemaker.
If you think about it: why, in fact, the President had in this situation behave differently? Imagine for a moment something like this in any of our Caucasian republics: Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Ingushetia. And shade no doubt: in a matter of hours there pulled part of Regardie, separatist rebellion will be suppressed, and Putin’s rating will only will increase.
But Gorbachev such steps was not able to. Instead of having to rush to Tbilisi to rectify the situation in a swirling Republic, he sends for himself, secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist party Razumovsky and Shevardnadze.
About any crackdown of the question now is not. On the contrary, the first steps of the emissaries of Moscow show a 180-degree turn. On the day of arrival, April 9, the Metropolitan, guests will immediately go to the mourning ceremony in the House of government, where with sad faces lay flowers at the steps, declaring the victims as “innocent victims”.
All of the responsibility assigned by them to the local leadership: under the pressure of the emissaries of the party leader dzhumber Patiashvili, 10 APR wrote a statement of resignation. Behind him the posts are deprived of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers Chkheidze and the speaker of the Supreme Council Cherkezia. The new Secretary of the Georgian Central Committee, the person becomes Shevardnadze, KGB chief Givi Gumbaridze, the one that withdrew from the square of their employees before the operation.
On April 11 a meeting with the creative and scientific elite Shevardnadze declares: “the Decision to send troops was made not in Moscow, and local authorities”; Gorbachev he was instructed “to convey condolences to the families of the victims and to the entire Georgian people”. Extraordinary Plenum of the Central Committee of the Republican he begins with a minute of silence.
The role of the head of the Soviet foreign Ministry obviously not limited to only one arrival in Tbilisi. And it’s not even that, taking advantage of the situation, he advanced up his protege Gumbaridze. Very much points to the involvement — if not direct indirect — the Shevardnadze to the Georgian crisis of power.
Leaving in 1985 by Gorbachev’s appeal to Moscow, Shevardnadze has not lost its influence on the life of the Republic — there are too many faithful people he left behind.
And no matter what it replaced dzhumber Patiashvili were trying to now demonstrate the independence and commitment to the new course, which, of course, is not possible without adjustments of the old course. Shevardnadze was too experienced and skillful politician. He knew how to wait.
To wait and endure; here and waited in the end to a triumphant return to Georgia, and before the presidential inauguration. With the 9th of April begins a new stage in political biography of Shevardnadze, which within 3 years will be headed by an independent Georgia.
An interesting story was told me of the first Deputy Minister of internal Affairs Ivan Shilov, arriving at the same time in Tbilisi together with the first Deputy Chairman of the KGB Philip Bobkova. Some days they could not find declared wanted leaders of the rebellion, and Shevardnadze personally participated in these meetings. But then the generals agreed to keep the search secret, and the rebels immediately one after the other was captured. Noteworthy is the reaction of Shevardnadze: “At the morning meeting he simply was not looking in our direction Bobkova, not hiding discontent. Although only yesterday scoffed at us, but he amazed that we can’t catch a bunch of renegades”.
In turn, General Bobkov recalled that Shevardnadze was extremely surprised to learn that the KGB recorded the unrest on video and even edited the whole movie: “the Film, made sure that the version of the application of the blades to disperse the demonstration is invalid, and quietly put the documentary material on the shelf.”
Did not get a recording of the KGB and the Commission of the Supreme Council of Georgia, started his own investigation in parallel with the Prosecutor’s office. However, they are here, too, were interested in the least. Parliamentary proceedings were conducted openly biased, with a pre-accusatory manner.
A month later, not even waiting for the conclusions of the first sudmedekspertizy, the Commission decided: “Action, done in Tbilisi on 9 April 1989 and in the first hours of the curfew, contains evidence of a crime against humanity, it can be classified as international crimes; and the fact of the use of troops of chemical weapons… is a unique cruelty event in the history of the civilized world.”
It is significant that the brochure with the final report of the Commission… printed in the printing house of the Central Committee of the Georgian Communist party.
Already on 17 April the Prosecutor’s office initiated a new criminal case: this time not against the instigators of the riots, and in respect of officers of MIA of the USSR and the Soviet army for abuse of power. In an interview with “Arguments and facts” (may 1989), the state Procurator Vakhtang Razmadze do not hesitate to call the military action “illegal” because “no need to enter the army was not.”
It is not surprising that already in may, all four of the arrested (Gamsakhurdia, Kostava, Tsereteli, Chanturia) will be released triumphant: the gift that just before they were charged of organizing mass riots. During interrogations, prisoners behaved defiantly, almost laughing to investigators in the face, as if in advance knew that the imprisonment will not last long, the will come out as national heroes…
The role of the media in Tbilisi events (or rather, its consequences) is difficult to overestimate. Journalists were key agents of myths and lies, it is through their efforts the country learned about the entrenching tool and killed old women. It is unlikely that the majority acted knowingly, rather, the media once again proved to be a weapon in the hands of a skilled counterfeiters.
First information blockade was broken, a photographer for the “Literaturnaya Gazeta” Yuri Rost. 13 April – “Youth of Georgia” (organ of the Communist youth!) publishes his photo taken that tragic night.
The illustrated papers are a peaceful people with candles on the other side of the sea of people. And now clanks shields the column of special forces and heavy batons falling on the heads of the unfortunate.
But there is one important detail. As the soldiers hammer the batons seen in the photos well. But why are they threshed and who attacked first — the left-overs.
By the time of the ousting of demonstrators, the Growth was not in the thick of things, and to the side, as if in the rear the soldiers ‘ columns. Their dispositions he described then as: “the Layer of the demonstrators in front of the soldiers were 5-6 people. Behind the front, at first I did not see, but soon, two guys offered me their services. They were picking me up, taking the legs, I was off…” But the question of the angle was the key here!
The morning after the fight. 9.04.1989. At the government House in Tbilisi. (Photo from the materials of the criminal case.)
After a couple of days about the events in Tbilisi will write the Central press. April 17, the “Moscow news” published an open letter to the six newly elected people’s deputies of the Soviet Union on “ruthless beating and poisoning of hundreds of people.”
Almost at the same time “the Week” publishes an article under the simple title “Tragedy”. “On 15 April, buried the dead. Expertise has already proven to have been the death of many of them from wounds caused by both acute and blunt objects and the use of chemical weapons”.
Here, every line is a lie. At the time of publication of the result of purely physically do not have time to conduct any examination. At least for this reason, it could not prove what was not in the nature — hacked and ruined by people.
But no one was immersed. Democratic press like a burst. Journalists excitedly replicated chilling horror, detailing the atrocities of the military. It was alleged that soldiers were used elektrorubanki, cut women trench spades, were wounded, blocking the passage of carriages “first aid”. Thousands of people were gassed, hundreds were wounded and injured, and dozens killed.
With the filing of the people’s Deputy of the USSR academician, control the whole world went wild accusations against “punitive”. At a press conference on 17 may, he said, soldiers “…stalked his victims over a kilometer… blocked all the passages and made it impossible to escape people.” And even “hacked to death together with the child” the woman the doctor on duty.
The morning after the fight. 9.04.1989. At the government House in Tbilisi. (Photo from the materials of the criminal case.)
In short, to the point where may 25, with the platform of the Congress for the whole country were presented the horrors of the “Tbilisi massacre”, the situation has already escalated considerably. In this situation, to admit his involvement in a night sweep for Gorbachev was akin to suicide: any arguments in favor of the use of force is blinded by the blood society to perceive unwilling.
And then the commander in chief without a trace of embarrassment, and from his order and from his subordinates. When deputies completely push him to the wall, Gorbachev lengthy explain: “innocent I, he has come”.
“I’ll tell you straight: the army needs to do its job. This is the view of the Politburo and the government… About what happened in Tbilisi we found out at 10 am the next day.”
Gorbachev not only not lifted a finger to stop the unfolding hysteria and cool the ardor of the speakers. On the contrary, feeling the mood of the room, he himself begins to play along.
It is the leaders of the party initiated the establishment of the parliamentary Commission, which, according to Chairman of the Congress Vitaly Vorotnikov, was “thoroughly and thoroughly to understand all aspects of this tragedy.” It was then decided in order to convey the objectivity of the investigation of the riots in the production of the Main military Prosecutor’s office of the USSR.
The Secretary reasoned pragmatic: by the time the investigation is complete, someone is likely to die: or the Shah, or a donkey, or Nasreddin Hodja…
…In the epic is already the time of the investigation were able to work not only on television. Landed in Tbilisi immediately after the first Congress of the GWP team of 40 people in a methodical way, without unnecessary passions began to interrogate all of the participants and witnesses, study the medical history, work affected. Only examinations was conducted almost 3 thousand.
Very soon, the picture is beginning to emerge, despite the sabotage and outright sabotage of the Georgian colleagues. The receiving party did everything possible in order to make the peaceful protesters the victims and the military — sadists and torturers.
The falsification started with the course. Already in the Protocol of inspection of the scene, drawn in hot pursuit, Georgian investigators unequivocally wrote: “…any objects that are intended to damage, not detected (knives, guns, metal rods, etc.), except for the stones.” And, therefore, the hooligans among the protesters could not be exclusively peaceful, the dancing gathering.
This obvious lie is easily refuted dozens of witnesses, including themselves as participants, interviewed by the Moscow prosecutors. On the contrary, in the morning the whole area was littered with broken glass, sticks, rebar, crumpled urns and benches.
But instead of missing rebar and steel rods in the trees at government House mysteriously suddenly began to appear numerous cuts and notches. On 14 April, the Prosecutor’s office of Georgia has even conducted an additional inspection and seizure of branches, having, as written in the Protocol that “traces of spades”. Branches came in very handy: it has proven the use of paratroopers of the blades which de they swung left-to-right. However, the PRT found the witnesses said: after the events they saw groups of young people, organized krosavcheg knives trunks and branches of trees in front of government House. At the same time there began to appear a trace of blood that was not there before. Examination confirmed that the notch could not be done blades.
Such provocations will be in excess. The secrets some of them are not solved until now…
As we remember, in total, on Rustaveli Avenue 19 people died. Participants of the hunger strike — despite the declarations of human rights — was not among them at all.
Numerous expertise within the result set: 18 were crushed by the crowd at the stairs of government House and died of asphyxia (suffocation), 19th — already familiar to us and which is con-karate Kvasroliashvili — fell and hit his head on a stone and died in hospital from a brain hemorrhage. The vast majority of victims were women (16) that, alas, is explainable: the first in a stampede that killed the weakest.
On the conscience of the military was not a single death, this conclusion — final, repeatedly proven the best doctors and forensic experts in the country. But the Georgian side, he understandably was not happy.
“Before we leave Tbilisi, — says one of the leaders of the investigation team GWP Yury bagraev — Georgian officials managed to sound a series of terrible accusations against the military. It was argued, for example, that the Marines were chopped up with a spatula a pregnant woman doctor at the time of dressing the wounded, and with her and the child. Start checking out. Indeed among the dead is a woman, Elizabeth H, on 5-m month of pregnancy. Though not a doctor, paramedic. Come to the meeting itself, medical care never provided. And most importantly — did not die from a sapper shovel, and was trampled in the stampede. As for the murdered child is just nonsense. The youngest of the victims was 16 years old.”
Similarly, the number killed by the blades initially was wrongly attributed felon-karate Kvasroliashvili. In conclusion, local SME indicated that: the cause of death was trauma to the skull caused “as a result of cutting exposure to small infantry shovel”. The recording was allegedly made with the victim. Two subsequent examination of traces “chopping impact” on the corpse to find, however, failed.
Another 12 deaths tried to be attributed to “suffocation, which developed as a result of inhalation of toxic chemical substances”. Comprehensive re-examination of the Ministry of health of the USSR, these conclusions have been strongly denied. Traces of poisons in corpses was not, and could not be (at least because most of the victims of the crush had broken the chest and they physically could not have anything to breathe).
Deadly venoms — it’s the same definitely false “active” as hacked by the blades of an old woman.
Officially, the Georgian Ministry of health reported 282 of the demonstrators, who applied for medical assistance (not including “gassed”, see below). This figure repeatedly appeared in the press. Is it in the report of the Committee of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
And now — attention! — the actual numbers from the case. After countless examinations and other investigative actions was finally established: that night on Rustaveli Avenue 138 protesters were injured, and only 74 of them “objectively confirmed the presence of injuries and bodily harm from the actions of the military.” (Among them, by the way, there was not one person over 50 years old.)
Another 64 protester “said that suffered during the stampede occurred not from the actions of the soldiers, and thrown into the crowd by unidentified persons and items any other way.”
It is useful to note that the loss of the opposite side was much more noticeable: in the collisions suffered by 189 soldiers and officers. 67 of them diagnosed a torn-bruised wounds, 12 — stab. Out of action were withdrawn 251 shield, 39 bulletproof vests, rubber truncheons 98; if the operation lasted an hour, it turns out that the minute the “peaceful protesters” broke about 4 police shields. But this is neither deputies nor journalists were not informed…
It is almost impossible now to dissuade people over forty, that at dispersal of demonstrators in Tbilisi, the special forces didn’t spray any toxic or deadly gases, extremely tear “the Cherry tree”. After flows years rained propaganda is very hard to get rid of its impact — certainly heavier than vapor “Cherry”.
“We questioned each soldier, hundreds of demonstrators spent a lot of examinations, several times, examined all the corpses. Traces of poison have not found anywhere, — says Yury bagraev. — Also, if used poisons, they could not affect the military.”
But local officials pointedly did not want to ignore the obvious facts while continuing to inflate the sci-Fi hysteria. The Minister of health of the Republic of Irakli Menagarishvili stated, for example, reporters that by mid-may for assistance “in connection with suspicion on a poisoning with chemical substances… turned 4038 people, 543 of them were hospitalized”.
On closer inspection, however, of the reported number confirmed less than 1% of cases. Re-examination proved from the use of tear gas affected a total of 13 demonstrators, and only two were diagnosed with minor injuries. The total number of applicants to the doctors after 9 April did not exceed 150 people.
Where did the other 4 thousand? Partly to this question gave the answer a comprehensive Commission Institute of forensic medicine of the USSR: “In many cases, the reason for issuing unfounded diagnoses was… the desire of a certain part of health workers and residents in this way to increase the number of “victims”.
People included in “black lists” crowd indiscriminately sick and healthy; as before signing for a loan. Commission Institute of forensic medicine has identified more than 2.2 thousand obvious fraud.
“Diagnoses of the type “toxic chemical substances”, “Toxicological encephalopathy” exhibited by doctors of medical institutions of Tbilisi, in many cases only on the basis of statements of people that they had contact with the “unknown gas”, — reported in turn, Minister of defense Yazov, the Commission of military physicians under the supervision of the chief military forensic psychiatrist. — Our appeals to the Georgian doctors to take greater responsibility for the diagnosis “poisoning” met very negatively and, as a rule, rejected”.
There was another key prosecution witness — one Arthur Gukasov. If others simply saw military sprayed gas, Gukasov fixed events experienced nose specialist. Before he fought in Afghanistan in Hincesti and personally hunted dushmans poisonous gases. So, exactly the same toxic substances, according to his assertions, was used on April 9 in Tbilisi: hero Afghan immediately recognized to tears familiar smells…
About Gukasova wrote a lot and willingly, was shown on CT; among journalists and human rights defenders, he was snapped up. As the chief expert and invaluable witness “Afghan”, he regularly appeared at press conferences, endless committees, meetings. Met him even academician Sakharov, who visited in may 1989 in Tbilisi.
But prosecutors freeze in no hurry. Before questioning Gukasova, GWP investigators lifted his own business and found that military service, he was held in Germany, and no toxic substances, no jingoism bearing in my life had.
Quote from the criminal case: “Being unmasked, Gukasov explained that about interviews and the testimony he gave for the purchase among the leaders of the informal organizations of authority, and information on the marking of chemicals learned in the works of foreign authors”.
Liberation movement and impressionable audience, as air is required such thrillers: and a lie, not a lie in mass hysteria who will be there to understand. Justified all that is the cause of the revolution…
…Actually affected by gases was not 13 people, and much more. From the “black list” of Ministry of health of Georgia 4038 names of Federal experts confirmed 231 the fact of poisoning. Only no relation to the events at government House — despite the assurances of the Republican authorities — these cases had not. The experts categorically denied the relationship between 231 poisoning and the military actions on 9 April. In other words, all the victims suffered from something else. From what?
Here begins the most interesting. Word General GWP Yuri Bagreeva: “a week after the event, from about April 14-15, Tbilisi hospital suddenly began to arrive EN masse, the patients with signs of poisoning: mainly pupils and students. By mid-may these outbreaks will be 2-3. We long could not understand: there are no gases that can cause people have an allergic reaction after about a week, and moreover month.”
Once again: April 9, interior Ministry forces used non-lethal weapons staff — the usual tear gas, standing in the service of all police in the world. After spraying, as shown by the investigative experiment, “secondary concentration of irritants in the air are not detected after 5 minutes, even at a distance of 1 meter.” With all the desire of flue gas cloud could not stay in the air for a week, and even transported over 5-7 miles to the side.
Meanwhile, after the April 14 mass poisoning began to record in different districts of Tbilisi, mainly in schools, universities and kindergartens. On 17 April, for example, many of the students and teachers of school №1 began suddenly sharp allergies, eyes watering. The same thing happened on April 21 in the House of pioneers, then in schools No. 46 and 47. In total, the diagnosis of “poisoning” was placed 288 minors. In may, the “epidemic” was covered with students of the Tbilisi state University and theatre Institute.
The city is gripped by panic. People were afraid to let children out of the house. Started a real hysteria, artfully fomented by local media.
“It was clear that these poisoning nothing to do with April 9, and hence the source must be sought in areas of infection, says bagraev. — I took professionals with the equipment and began the systematic circumvention of the TSU: the room in the room. Suddenly, in the auditorium of the Philology Department of the arrows went up drastically: wild excess air MPC of harmful substances. We began to narrow it down, until they reached the desks on the “Kamchatka”. Inside, wrapped in a piece of carpet, lay a handful of grey powder. The examination found: in front of us tear the substance.”
These incredible testimonies of General Bagraeva reflected in the materials of the criminal case. In the final decree of the Prosecutor General’s office clearly stated in the “fact finding during the investigation in the classroom Tbilisi state University gray powder.” And then: “an expert study of this powder, and taken in class flap carpet-fleecy fabric showed the presence in these objects of chloracetophenone”.
Chloracetophenone, abbreviated HALF — a chemical warfare agent tear action. It is the basis of “Cherry” and other police gases. Outdoors HALF almost harmless: the smell disappears for a couple of minutes. But the impact of it in a confined space, especially in young organisms, much larger: to severe effects, of course, will not come, but lacrimation and itching guaranteed.
HALF the tracks were discovered by a group Bagraeva and in soil samples from contaminated schools and kindergartens, as well as indoors. Obviously, toxic substances appeared there much later than the events of “black April.” The same conclusion will result.
In the final decree of the Prosecutor General in black and white says: “…After 9 April 1989 at the same time took place repeated and repeated contamination of the terrain in the area of the prospect that requirement chloracetophenone (HALF) or si-es”. About the “deliberate use of unidentified persons household poisons or medications with the aim of maintaining stress and panic, “universal poisoning” toxic substances,” he wrote in the reference case and the Deputy chief military Prosecutor of the USSR major General Vasiliev.
If so, it becomes clear why the foci of the epidemic were children’s and educational institutions: openly cannibalistic settlement — beat on to the patient, and especially to the Georgians, with their cult family. And immunity in children is weaker, and the resonance much more…
However, the extremely important point for me is the scene of the discovery of poisonous “bookmarks”. The room is not from the physics Department or chemistry Department that is logical, namely, Philology, TSU. At least it is very symptomatic.
A graduate of the faculty himself was Zviad Gamsakhurdia, and an active participant in these events, academician Tamaz Gamkrelidze, and many of the leaders of the “informals”. He graduated from the philological and the new owner of Georgia Givi Gumbaridze.
TSU, and in particular the faculty of Philology, was considered to be one of the main strongholds of the resistance. It is from April 4, Gamsakhurdia took the student column to the rally to government House. Following this session, the TSU has stopped, the vast majority of students and teachers joined the Maidan.
In communicating the intelligence of the North Caucasus military district on 9 April it was reported: “a Special position in the organization of the counter is state University, where he worked and acted with almost all the members of the leadership (of the resistance. — Ed.)… Of the nationalist students are used as agitators in other parts of the city.”
Question on filling: who — given the above, the easiest way was to put a packet of poisonous crystals in the audience of Philology?
Obviously, those who had constant access there. Any of the students, for example. Not to mention the teachers.
Another issue is that a particular group of technicians or students to get industrial batch of crystals HALF and then secretly scatter them in different areas of the city was clearly not in the teeth. But if they were helped by other, more powerful forces…
A member of the Politburo, the second President of Georgia Eduard Shevardnadze.
After “black April,” the interests of the opposition and of the new Georgian authorities have practically closed; the injection of “gas hysteria” was on hand all.
However, this secret Alliance will last very long. Very soon the government in Georgia passed into the hands of the main beneficiary — a former member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist party Eduard Shevardnadze Amvrosievich…
Read the first part here
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