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Tuesday, February 13, 2018

Champion for growth: scientists have learned how to identify athletic ability from birth

In recent years, medicine became a new trend sport genetics. Now with the help of genetic analyses, it is possible to know in advance what sports your child is predisposed. This will help not only to break his psyche, but, if desired, to grow out of it a champion. Because not all real men play hockey, and not all girls succeed gymnasts. And yet the decisive factors on the way to the medals are not only genes, but also an iron will and thirst for victory. What is capable today sports genetics, in an interview with “MK” was told by the doctor Vladimir Mukhin.

photo: pixabay.com

– What are the peculiarities of sports genetics?

Genetics is responsible not only for the color of eyes, hair, skin tone and a person’s Constitution, but also personal reactions to things — from metabolism to the propensity to engage in certain kinds of sports. However, genetics is merely a likelihood or possibility, and whether it is implemented depends on many conditions. Sports quality of a person largely is dependent on genetics, but in matters of the impact of training cannot be ignored and external factors — the intensity and regularity of training, mental attitude, the coach’s role in this process, etc. you Can have shiny data, but not use them.

If we are talking about the role of genetics, the possible sporting success determined by genes, which are responsible for the level of “physical fitness” cardiovascular and respiratory systems for sports, the composition of muscle fibers the physiology of muscle, speed, shift of metabolism from carbohydrate to fat, the elasticity of the ligaments, especially the nervous system (the same will to win), the rate of tissue repair, the risk of injury, etc. All this determines the adaptability of an organism to a certain intensity of stress. For example, sprinters are well tolerated short and a heavy load, and can withstand long-stayers. Kenyan runners — stayers, and African Americans sprinters, it is determined including the genetic characteristics of these ethnic groups. Knowing the body, a person can train more effectively.

Take, for example, aerobic capacity. The body needs oxygen during physical activity, and what is more intense, the higher the level of oxygen consumption. But everyone has limits, when resources do not allow the body to work harder. This factor also depends on the genetic characteristics. For example, some people use oxygen more effective than others under the same load and you can include in your training plan more intense loads without harm to health. But, as a rule, experienced coach, through which passed hundreds of athletes, all these genetic features fast enough to notice by eye in response to the load and mode of training, but a genetic test will not lose your time and train as efficiently as possible, given the propensity of man and his strengths.

— At what age can you do the test? Can parents use this information to immediately find the child and buy the sports section, and not to change after six months of hockey and tennis, spending loads of money on unnecessary equipment?

Test can be carried out as soon as the baby is born: genes don’t change throughout life, but I am confident that guided by the results of the tests when you choose the sports section for a child is meaningless. This pragmatic approach is justified only in case if the child is already showing some interest and results in sports. And when the question arises, on what to focus (on training or study Humanities or technical subjects), then Yes. But again, do not forget that despite the fact that the vast majority of players is high enough guys knows a successful NBA players whose height does not exceed 170 cm, which, in General, is severely hampered in this sport. Genetics is a predisposition, it is often a bonus, but a lot depends on the person and their desire to succeed. Genetics is only one of the weights that you put on the scales, weighing “for” and “against”.

— Is it useful simple townsfolk? For example, a regular at the fitness clubs that are engaged in to maintain health and wellbeing?

One of the reasons why people engage in sport — weight. Knowing the peculiarities of their genes, it is possible to choose the type of exercise and workouts that will allow you to develop an effective plan fitness activities or sports, and get the maximum results in the shortest time, while avoiding injuries and negative health effects.

Very early it was fashionable to discuss “obesity gene” FTO, and this led to the fact that many people ceased to do anything overweight, citing “bad genetics”. But this approach is completely wrong. Can lose weight that people with the normal gene, its polymorphism (mutation), just one it will have to change tactics is to stick to a certain type of diet. In addition, this gene is associated not only with fat metabolism, but also with violation of the exchange control appetite — a person difficult to keep the night from going to the fridge. With this information, it is possible to put the emphasis in the process of weight loss. Suppose a man should understand that he actually can not afford any weakness.

Very often, people are faced with the fact that fitness does not bring the desired result. Now there are two friends in the hall, follow the diet, do not eat at night, the dumplings and chocolates, one loses weight and the other doesn’t. What does it mean? Only that for one of them the load is insufficient. So something has changed, and there results, it needs high-intensity training, whereas the other really is enough to go three hours a week at a speed of 5 km/h.

Or do you want two young men to pursue bodybuilding. In this sport, is set to share the subcutaneous fat so the muscles looked ripped and match the standards. Both approach the stage of the competition, one perfect, and another to have to suffer, to be on a strict carbohydrate-free diet, suffer from dehydration, to conform to this sport standards.

For professional athletes, it is important to determine predisposition to occupational diseases. Analysis can determine the risk of development of cardiovascular pathology, risk of occurrence of sprains, torn ligaments, and broken bones. It will be useful for those who have reached a certain “peak”, and cannot achieve further progress.

— Today there are many genetic mutations do I need to explore them all? Are there any standard bar used in the test?

– Currently known hundreds of genes associated with various features of achievements in the sport. We are conducting a survey of only those genes that are scientifically proven and justified, use some panel where chosen those polymorphisms which identified a specific molecular mechanism. We know that this gene is responsible for a certain structure of a protein, e.g., muscle performs a specific function, and if its structure is changed, this will lead to a certain result. Science today allows us to get answers to quite a large number of questions, but it is always necessary to understand that genetic research is focused primarily on the identification of predisposition.

— What eventually gets people? Reference values as in the usual tests? Or practical information that can be applied in practice?

Studies that usually contain the conclusion of the doctor-genetics, where specific recommendations using which people can contact their coach and with him to develop the optimal training plan based on the individual characteristics of the genotype. That is not a set of obscure Latin letters, is concluded with the description of the mechanisms, what causes the presence of a polymorphism, and for which he is responsible.

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