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Friday, January 19, 2018

Were the Americans on the moon

Recently, the author and transmission of known teleobservation Alexei Pushkov, the TVC channel, heard the arguments in favor of the version that the Americans were on the moon, landing a man on the moon no more than a pavilion show. This version of walk on the Internet.

photo: ru.wikipedia.org

A feature of the Internet is that there along with helpful information can be found unreliable and incompetent judgment. The fluff is one of the Central Russian TV channels. Moreover, he is not only a journalist but also a member of the State Duma and the head of one of Duma committees, i.e. high enough official. Alexei Pushkov has already voiced its version in the previous gear. I sent then in TVC brief opinion-objection, without entering into the discussion. The response I received. But in the last transmission, Mr. cannon returned to the subject, strengthening it with new links to pictures from the Internet and opinions of persons professionally far from science. Therefore, as the representative of the Russian scientific community, I can’t leave supported Alexei Pushkov opinion without attention.

Scientific proof of human presence on the moon is not in photos and videos. In each of the six flights with the landing of a man on the moon under the program “Apollo” the Americans returned to Earth with samples of lunar rocks. In my childhood we had a deep pond in which the boys dived into the depths. Proof that tonymoly to the bottom was silt on the palm, scoop up from the bottom. In the case of the lunar program, “Ile” was attended by about 300 kg of lunar soil. Rock samples taken by the first expedition, “Apollo 11”, and the subsequent expeditions have been analyzed in many laboratories of the world. We then first learned the specific chemical and mineral composition of the moon. Moon rocks are similar to earth, but differ in some characteristic details. For example, large dark spots that everyone can see, looking at the moon this phases of the moon covered by basalt. Ancient astronomers called them the lunar seas. Curiously, the bottom of the earth’s oceans is also covered with basalts. Lunar basalts turned out to consist of the same minerals as the earth, but they have a much higher content of titanium (Ti) and aluminum (Al). In terrestrial conditions do not occur so Vysokochistye and alumina (rich in oxide of aluminium) basalts, like the moon. This was confirmed later by analysis of the sample delivered the Soviet automatic station “Luna 16”, palanisamy on the basalt plateau of Mare fecunditatis. The enrichment of moon titanium and aluminum (Ti, Al) stems from the fact that these elements form refractory oxides. And the Moon in General is the high temperature cosmic body than the Earth. If melting any breed, with increasing temperature of the melt will volatilize the oxides in the following order: K2O, Na2O, FeO, SiO2, MgO, CaO, TiO2, Al2O3. These oxides and their constituent elements are called rock-forming, since they consist of more than 90% (in various combinations) are the main rocks composing the Earth and the moon. In this series, Sao is also a refractory oxide. There is a group of minerals called plagioclases. It is a silicate minerals which have the same structure but different ratio of elemental composition of calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na). The highest content of calcium in the mineral anortite, and the highest content of sodium in the mineral albite. From what has been said in relation to the high temperature nature of the composition of the moon, you can guess that the Moon should be enriched in the anortite. Indeed, huge areas of the moon called the lunar continents, as the most prominent light areas of the disc are composed of anorthosites — rocks containing anortite. On Earth, anorthosites also occur, but very rarely. The Academy of Sciences in 1960 worked as a geologist, a rare speciality of which was the study of minor importance for the Earth, but because it seemed uninteresting rocks — anorthosites. Grant current officials for these studies just would not give. But when, after expeditions “Apollo” was the clear role of anorthosites on the moon, he became almost the main world expert on the Geology of the moon. Now it is a well-known scientist, academician O. A. Bogatikov. Soviet automatic station “Luna 20” has been specifically focused in the continental regions of the moon (the highlands near the crater Descartes) and brought back to Earth a sample of lunar soil, enriched in anorthosite.

I must say that made from the moon automatic selection of the soil of the Soviet space stations were, along with expeditions “Apollo” huge contribution to science. Three devices delivered a total of 325 g of soil. But they are highly regarded in the scientific world. And because it extends included in the study areas of the moon, and because it is independent of the source of the substance. In technical terms, automatic delivery of soil from the moon was no less complex and maybe even more graceful than a manned mission. But, of course, the project with the participation of the man and his stay on the moon was much more impressive, though much more risky. Everywhere in the scientific literature when it comes to data on the composition of the lunar soil, as the source mentioned together and us project “Apollo” and the Soviet project “Moon”. It was a heroic epic, which we, her contemporaries, should be proud of as a common achievement of mankind.

Based on what the doubts referred to in the media and on the Internet? If you take, for example, posted online a photograph of the moment of landing of the American lunar module and output of an astronaut on the lunar surface, it really is possible to find inconsistencies that cause issues. For example, stepping on the lunar soil, astronaut leaves embossed clear traces, and near the flag no tracks and no traces of him are not. But to stick a flag in lunar soil, it was necessary to approach this place. Yes, and the flag pole doesn’t cast a shadow, cast the figure of the astronaut, lunar module and other items. What would it mean? Maybe it’s a random false impression with his explanation. And maybe, to enhance the solemnity of the moment, the organizers report just painted on the flag to the real picture before you send it in the air.

Known because the same is the case in our history. On 7 November 1941 in the besieged Moscow, 30 miles from which stood the Germans held unprecedented military parade. Troops from the parade went directly to battle positions. Stalin standing on the mausoleum, made a speech. But filming the speech turned out poorly. Decided to re-shoot the performance of the leader in the pavilion and mount the frames in the film. Everything turned out smoothly, except for one. It was a freezing day. From speaking steam came out of his mouth. And when shooting in the pavilion this detail missed. This was the basis for the Nazis to argue that no parade was not that the installation and promotion.

So, if the television pictures of man’s landing on the moon and have issues, it casts a shadow on the talent of the organizers of the telecast, and not to exploit people, really committed, as Neil Armstrong said, a great step for all mankind.

And again. I had the opportunity to personally hear reports and stories of American astronaut Harrison Schmidt, geologist by profession, a member of the expedition “Apollo 17”. I had the opportunity to chat amiably with the commander of the expedition “Apollo 16” John young. I reject admitted Mr. Pushkov, even implicitly, their accusation of lying.


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