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Sunday, December 17, 2017

The birthday of Ivan Pavlov: attracted first Russian Nobel prize winner


168 years ago was born Ivan Pavlov — physiologist, famous for the fact that he divided the whole set of reflexes conditioned and unconditioned. Also Pavlov was the first Russian scientist to be awarded the Nobel prize, he received it for his work on the physiology of digestion. The birthday of the outstanding researcher noted, “Yandex”, giving the image on the main page.


photo: ru.wikipedia.org

At the relatively early stages of their scientific career Pavlov conducted experiments with sham feeding (cutting of the esophagus so that no food into the stomach), thus, making a number of discoveries in the field of reflexes of allocation of gastric juice and the physiology of digestion in General. In 1904 he was awarded the Nobel prize for the study of the functions of the main digestive glands was awarded to I. P. Pavlov — he was the first Russian Nobel prize winner.

Subsequently, Pavlov first formulated the principles of the physiology of higher nervous activity, the study of which he devoted the next 35 years of his life. Concepts such as reinforcement, unconditioned and conditioned reflexes, were the main concepts of the science of behavior around the world. The phrase “Pavlov’s dogs” today we know almost any man — at least, in Russia.

Pavlov said that he felt a sense of regret, when one or the other experience is required to terminate an animal’s life. However, attempts to put the vivisection under control in a situation where many animals are killed for entertainment, or at the whim of the people, he considered a manifestation of “the eternal enmity and struggle of ignorance against science.”

For exceptional scientific achievements Pavlov was the home of the rank of state Councilor, which gave the right of reception of the hereditary nobility. In may of 1897, Pavlov and his family were listed in the noble genealogical book. After the scientist’s death his name was given many awards, as well as many streets in Russia and abroad.

There is a theory that even in the most difficult periods of his life Pavlov refused to move to other countries, rejecting tempting offers, because he wanted to work in their country. At the same time, the Russian mentality, he was largely critical, in particular, believed that it is characterized by the lack of intellectual discipline.

To Pavlov, the Soviet authorities were, at least, ambiguous — introduced in the Charter of the Academy of Sciences of the paragraph, according to which all work should be done on the platform of the teachings of Marx and Engels, physiologist called “the greatest abuse of scientific thought” and compared with the approach of the medieval Inquisition. This, however, did not stop after scientist’s death to turn him into some kind of ideological symbol, and under the slogan “protection of Pavlov’s heritage” to persecute some of the leading physiologists of the country.

Quite interesting were the relations of the physiologist with the religion of his ancestors of both the paternal and maternal lines were clergymen in the Russian Orthodox Church, however, Pavlov himself called himself an unbeliever and explained that it came to this at the age of 15-16 years, especially when actively was interested in reading different books. At the same time, Pavlov saw nothing surprising in the fact that in their desire to seek the cause people sometimes come to the idea of God.

The most famous passion Pavlova, was not related to his scientific activities, was collecting. At different times, a scientist had a collection of butterflies, plants, stamps and paintings. Also he had a rather peculiar collection of books — on the birthday of each of the six family members to him as a gift was bought the collected works of any writer.

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