Photo: Nikolay Gyngazov/Global Look Rgege next year minimum wage (the minimum wage) should be compared with the cost of living. The job has given Vladimir Putin. The state Duma has promised to enact as soon as possible. Thus, the minimum wage equal to the subsistence minimum for the first time, although it has declared in recent years. Will this help in the fight against poverty? Details…
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Go to a section…”Sevastopol should become the southern capital”Photo: Vasily Batanov/RIA “news”,”If you spend time on the constant scandals, public discussion, and to care in other planes other than work, then you have nothing useful happens” – said the newspaper VIEW, the newly elected Governor of Sevastopol Dmitry Ovsyannikov. In particular, he commented on the subject of previous disagreements with the team of his predecessor Alexey Chaly. Details…
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Alexei Mukhin: regional elections in 2017. The results
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Andrei Babitsky: On the way Saakashvili may stand only nationalists like Yarosh
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MoreDiscussion: 37 comments
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Online marathon “election Night – 2017”
Discussion: 7 comments
Putin held a plenary meeting of the Eastern economic forum
Putin held an open lesson “Russia looking into the future”
Discussion: 9 comments
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Go to a section…For whom do you support in the conflict between Saakashvili and Poroshenko?
- I wish you success Saakashvili
- I wish success to Poroshenko
Alexey Chaly invited to make a Patriotic Sevastopol the capital of Russia. How do you feel about this idea?
- Patriotic capital should be another city
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Ramzan Kadyrov has expressed its disagreement with Russia’s position regarding Myanmar. Is it acceptable that the head of the Russian region publicly challenged the country’s foreign policy (which is not true to his official authority)?
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- All depends on the personality of the head region
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News of the HOUR:Turkey made the first payment for the s-400
The extension of Putin’s presidency will happen in two etapalli of Crimea assessed the non-recognition of elections Evrosoyuzovskih metro station “Komsomol” in Moscow there was stralberg the United States exceeded 20 trillion dollars on missiles “Caliber” increased demand for robesonian responded to the accusations Lavrov “dzhebhat an-Nusra”Britain convened a meeting of the UN security Council on the situation in Manibeli outlined the condition for lifting the sanctions against Rossiiskaia known the value of the gift Putin the inhabitant of Izhevsk trips to Sociable welcomed the talks between Russia and Germany on the security of SMM on Ukrainerussia 11356 frigates for India will get digitalmaverick Ukrainian President Herman Klimenko returned to Facebook
The main theme
The United States was breached, critically vulnerable to nuclear attack
support for Ukraine
The EU does not recognize elections in Crimea
the ban on the native language
Hungary has complained of Ukraine to the UN, OSCE and EU Commissioner
Became known the plans for new restrictions on American diplomats in Russia
“with the same tenacity”
Poroshenko hoped for a breakthrough Saakashvili across the border of Georgia
The defense Ministry released a video of the crew of tank T-90
Alternative comparison of the Crimea with the GDR is unlikely to appeal to Merkel
“the fatal error of Napoleon,”
The historian spoke about the myths surrounding the battle of Borodino
Andrei Babitsky: In the boat of Ukrainian statehood punched a huge hole
the supply of American weapons
Denis Seleznev: in fact, the “issue price” for Ukraine announced
“Another September 11”
Dmitry Drobnicki: whether the “Chilean miracle” and is the author of Augusto Pinochet?
in your opinion
For whom do you support in the conflict between Saakashvili and Poroshenko?
Madrid will be difficult to rein in Catalonia without power marissia the OSCE decided not to blame the DNR in the attack on their nablyudatelya would be worth studying the Spanish experience in the fight against separatism
Europe, which seeks to Ukraine, has its own examples of interaction with regions seeking to secede. The most striking example of European separatism is Catalonia, and Spain manages to communicate with Barcelona without the use of tanks, heavy artillery and without killing their own citizens. What are the similarities and differences between the situations in the Donbass and Catalonia?
In the last days there was a new revival of the separatists in the Spanish region of Catalonia. The leadership of the Autonomous community has announced his firm intention to organize the October 1 independence referendum. And it is ready to do it unilaterally, without the consent of the Central government of Spain. Immediately after this the regional authorities have even started recruiting volunteers to assist in the conduct of the plebiscite, and in Barcelona, held rallies in support of the sovereignty, which gathered tens of thousands of people.
“Kiev must respect the right of the people of Donbass to Express their will to be independent”
The revival of the theme of separatism in the European Union country Spain unwittingly conjures up thoughts about the situation in the region, is located much closer to our country – in the South-East of Ukraine. Some say the similarity of these processes, say about the need to support each other regions struggling for independence, and have even expressed such support. Others have said that it is absolutely different cases, alluding to the differing origins of separatist sentiments and methods of struggle for independence.
What are the similarities and differences between Catalonia and Donbass?
Kiev and Madrid respond differently to identical requests of Donbass and Catalonia
The current process in Catalonia and the Donbass do have similarities, different a reaction of the Central authorities. Initially, the Donbass demanded from Kiev, not independence, but only autonomy and expanded rights in the Ukraine. In particular, DND and LNR proposed to enshrine in law the special status of self-government – its Executive, legislative and judiciary, the Prosecutor’s office. They also demanded the establishment of the people’s militia units under the control of local authorities, to introduce special economic regime and establish in the region an official status of the Russian language, as well as to grant Amnesty to the militia and leadership of the DNI and LC. Ukrainian authorities anything like that go, and just kept fighting.
The Catalans after the death of Franco also asked for autonomy, which, in contrast to the DNI and the LC, in 1979, and in 2006 it was further extended. The government of Catalonia and other Spanish regions (17 Autonomous communities and two Autonomous cities) is determined by the Constitution and Autonomous statutes (the special legislative act on the status of the region). Every Statute individual, with the most extensive powers from Catalonia, which is not far behind and the Basque Country.
The Basques are proud of the fact that recognized their historical foreline rights (“fueros” – a set of benefits and privileges, determining their relationship with the centre) who are the embodiment of ancient traditions and customs, a symbol of national identity.
Thus, Spain is an excellent example of the special status of certain regions while maintaining the unitary territorial structure of the country.
The Catalans and Basques has provided many benefits
Catalans (and Basques) are recognized as a separate nationality within the Spanish nation – and it is definitely a contrast to the Ukrainian situation, because most Ukrainians could be recognized as a separate nationality within the Russian nation.
Catalonia has its own national symbols – the flag and anthem. And these attributes are widely used not only by state institutions, but also residents and even business autonomy. In addition, the September 11 mass region celebrates its national holiday, the Diada, or national day of Catalonia, which is accompanied by festivals, concerts, rallies and marches. He is dedicated, incidentally, to the fall of Barcelona in 1714 resulting in Catalonia and was conquered by Spain.
To imagine such a thing in the Donbass difficult. What is there anthem or the flag when the residents of the South-East of Kiev tries to infringe the rights (but manages to say that it was his territory). Here, even after the introduction of bezveza with the EU, the Ukrainian authorities have said they will issue passports of the old sample in Donetsk and Luhansk, specifically so they couldn’t be used for travel to Europe.
Another important point is the language. Catalan language is not only the official along with Spanish, but also recognized as the only historical language of the region (a similar situation with the Basque language in the Basque Country). Moreover, he is the official in the other two Autonomous regions – the Balearic Islands and Valencia (Valencia – just a dialect of Catalan), the regions of other countries – in the pyrénées-Orientales in France and Alghero on Sardinia (Italy), as well as the state in Andorra. The education in Catalonia is only available in Catalan and Spanish is taught as a separate discipline (and here in the Basque Country bilingual education with the right choice). All the Catalans (and even those who moved to the region for permanent residence) needs to learn Catalan language. In addition, Catalan is obligatory for all public institutions of the region and official documents. Press, television and other media broadcast in both languages. And if you walk through the streets of the Catalan and Basque cities, we can see that all the names of streets, signs are also mirrored in the national language (and in the Basque country, even the cities have a second name in Basque).
Such broad language rights can be applicable to the authorities of Ukraine only in a nightmare. War in Kiev with the Russian language and forced Ukrainization is a long time and causes problems not only in the South-East. The transition to Ukrainian true of education and government agencies. And recently the advocates of ukrainojazychnoj got to the media, introducing a quota of 75 percent of broadcasting in Ukrainian.
Have Catalonia and other privileges that would like to have and the Donbass. Autonomy has its own Parliament which has the right to issue regional laws that do not violate the Constitution. He was elected without any involvement of the Central government by direct vote of the people of the region. And have its own government, the Generalitat (the Generalitat) headed by the Chairman, emerging victorious in the parliamentary elections of the party. A similar system, and in Basque, whose head of government has its own name – lehendakari (“lehendakari”). The only branch of government that is not completely transferred to the jurisdiction of Barcelona and Vitoria-Gasteiz – the court. However, the Catalan government involved in the selection of the chief legal justice of the Supreme court of Catalonia – the highest court of the Autonomous community. In addition, the Catalans and Basques have representation in the General Cortes (the Spanish Parliament), and even in the European Parliament.
Moreover, Catalonia and the Basque Country is the only authority who have their own police, directly subordinated to the local government. And this is another requirement of Donetsk and Luhansk was unacceptable for Kiev. Catalan Mossos d’esquadra and the Basque Ertzaintza (“Arcanta”) transferred all the powers of the municipal and traffic police. In this regard, in the Basque country there are practically no units of the National police of Spain, but there are parts of the Civil guard (paramilitary police with double subordination of the Ministry of interior and the Ministry of defense, like Regardie in our country). Here the guards are deprived of the functions of the traffic police, which is part of their mandate in other regions. Catalan Mossos almost completely replace both the Spanish structure, which in this regard in the region are presented.
Unites Catalonia with the Donbas and another point is the most economically developed regions of their countries. The conflict the contribution of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions in Ukraine’s GDP was about 25 percent. By the end of 2015 the GDP of Catalonia amounted to 19 percent of the Spanish (and if you add six percent of the Basque Country – will be the same 25). While Barcelona has its own budget and even collect part of the taxes. However, in this region the autonomy of Catalonia is small – 95 percent of the tax revenues it sends to the center and back in the form of funding and others received only about half the amount sent. However, the radically different situation in the Basque Country, which gathers and distributes almost all taxes on their own, and Madrid and sends only a fixed fee, which now stands at just over six percent of income of the Autonomous community.
Separatism in Ukraine, and Spain has different origins
But the roots of the independence movement in the South-East of Ukraine and in the North of Spain (and it’s not just Catalonia but the Basque Country, also leaving no hope for sovereignty) are different.
A member of the separatist coalition “Catalan solidarity for independence” Jose Enrique Folk said in comments the newspaper VIEW that the movement for the independence of Donetsk and Lugansk is not similar to Catalan. “Movement in Catalonia – it is a protest movement against the state, to which we do not want to belong. For this is the economic and cultural motives,” he said. The motives of the Lugansk and Donetsk differ from the motives of Barcelona, near the South-East of Ukraine “has a chance to gain independence,” but not for reasons of differences in cultural traditions, the Catalan.
Indeed, the centrifugal sentiment in the Donbass came after the coup in Kiev. First it was protests against the violent coming to power in the region and in the country of supporters of the euromaidan and the Ukrainian nationalists, and performances for sovereignty emerged after the application of the new government armed forces and the beginning of full hostilities. Thus, they can be called a defensive reaction in response to the seizure of power in the country, the surge of nationalist sentiment and attacks on Russian-speaking population.
The struggle of the Catalans, and Basque is the problem existing, without exaggeration, is not the first century, and it is based on just the idea of their own culture and statehood. Barcelona has its own history of statehood really is – and as an independent Principality, then the Kingdom of Aragon, to which Catalonia joined voluntarily. After the conquest of the region by Spain in 1714 he began the struggle for the restoration of its independence, which is still ongoing.
In Basque, the situation is slightly different – the state’s own education was only that of their ancestors, vasconi, in the ancient world (not counting the breakaway Republic during the civil war in Spain, but it lasted only a year from 1936 to 1937). After the Basque territories were part of the Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Navarre and Spain, however, always enjoyed wide autonomy and exclusive rights. On this, as well as on linguistic and ethnic uniqueness is based and Basque separatism.
No harm will also recall that the Catalans and the Basques have not always conducted their struggle by peaceful means, as it is now. The Basque terrorist organization ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna – “Basque Country and freedom”) had operated since 1959, and surrendered only in 2011.
If about THIS we know almost everything about the Catalan terrorism remember a few. However, it also took place. Since the 1970s, there were several anorganische Catalan separatists, the most famous of which, Terra Lliure (“Free land”), disbanded in 1991. The radicalization of separatist movements in Catalonia and the Basque Country was largely prompted by the reign of the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, who harshly suppressed any national manifestations of the Basques and Catalans, banned their symbols, and the use of any language except Spanish. In relation to national movements used repression, a striking example is the execution of the former head of the government of Catalonia, escaped to France, but in 1940 the Nazis caught and handed over to Franco.
Severe measures only give rise to opposition
Why in the wide and privileges of Catalonia actively continues to fight for independence?
It’s simple. Wine in the current resurgence of separatism lies on the ruling national party (NP) and her head Mariano Rahoi, who decided to take a hard line against the separatists. Because the increased centrifugal sentiment occurred after 2006 NP, who were then in opposition, filed a constitutional court application against the new Autonomous Statute of Catalonia, which have been approved by the Madrid and adopted. In the end, some of the articles were unconstitutional and subjected to revision.
The second factor was the refusal of Prime Minister Rajoy in 2012 to meet Barcelona and to expand its financial and fiscal autonomy (its own Ministry of Finance and the control over tax collection in the Basque Country). In conjunction with the effects of the financial crisis painfully hit in Spain, this has led to a significant strengthening of positions of supporters of the “divorce”. By the way, the key to resolving this problem has long offered the opposition Spanish socialist workers ‘ party, and it is full federalization of the country.
It is worth noting that the separatist-minded government of Catalonia often commit any acts of disobedience. From such serious as the referendum, the creation of its own Ministry of foreign Affairs, opening of representative offices of the region abroad or attempts to form its own defense Ministry to different things. In particular, in the autonomy a few years ago was banned so beloved by the Spanish in the bullfighting, explaining that, of course, considerations of humanity and for the protection of animals. Across the country, with plenty of huge billboards in the form of black bulls – this started out as a is brandy Osborn, however, has lost its original meaning and has become a part of the brand “brand Spain”. And in Catalonia they were demolished.
Another funny moment is a Catalan taxi, which is painted black, unlike the white throughout the Kingdom. Moreover, some of the Catalan institutions, like hotels, sometimes refuse to accept as ID documents of the right for temporary residence in Spain (even diplomats), saying something like “this is not Spain”.
That is the only answer even openly provocative actions of the Spaniards some reason not to enter ATO mode and begin to shoot the blocks Barcelona from artillery. On the contrary, they tend to act exclusively through judicial and administrative pressure, as well as the media. This approach forces and the Catalans to act solely by peaceful methods. And even Basques have laid down their arms in 2011. They simply became difficult to justify why they use violence against those who did not show them any aggression.
Thus, in Europe, attracting Ukrainian authorities have already come up with a way to solve the problem of separatism through peaceful means. Why Kiev instead of organizing the bloodshed not to use the same example of Spain? After all, Madrid have only managed to return to the separatist movement in the country in a peaceful direction, but quietly discussing the option of federalization of the country.
Jose Enrique Folk said the newspaper VIEW that a positive attitude to the movements for independence of Donetsk and Lugansk. “I believe they are legitimate,” – said the source. In his opinion, Kyiv should “respect the right of the people of Donbass to Express their will to be independent.” “I believe that is a fundamental right and that no nation can force another,” added the Catalan.