Photo: Nikolay Gyngazov/Global Look Rgege next year minimum wage (the minimum wage) should be compared with the cost of living. The job has given Vladimir Putin. The state Duma has promised to enact as soon as possible. Thus, the minimum wage equal to the subsistence minimum for the first time, although it has declared in recent years. Will this help in the fight against poverty? Details…
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Go to a section…”Sevastopol should become the southern capital”Photo: Vasily Batanov/RIA “news”,”If you spend time on the constant scandals, public discussion, and to care in other planes other than work, then you have nothing useful happens” – said the newspaper VIEW, the newly elected Governor of Sevastopol Dmitry Ovsyannikov. In particular, he commented on the subject of previous disagreements with the team of his predecessor Alexey Chaly. Details…
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Alexei Mukhin: regional elections in 2017. The results
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Online marathon “election Night – 2017”
Discussion: 7 comments
Putin held a plenary meeting of the Eastern economic forum
Putin held an open lesson “Russia looking into the future”
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Defined “Miss America – 2018”
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Go to a section…For whom do you support in the conflict between Saakashvili and Poroshenko?
- I wish you success Saakashvili
- I wish success to Poroshenko
Alexey Chaly invited to make a Patriotic Sevastopol the capital of Russia. How do you feel about this idea?
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Ramzan Kadyrov has expressed its disagreement with Russia’s position regarding Myanmar. Is it acceptable that the head of the Russian region publicly challenged the country’s foreign policy (which is not true to his official authority)?
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News of the HOUR:Turkey made the first payment for the s-400
The extension of Putin’s presidency will happen in two etapalli of Crimea assessed the non-recognition of elections Evrosoyuzovskih metro station “Komsomol” in Moscow there was stralberg the United States exceeded 20 trillion dollars on missiles “Caliber” increased demand for robesonian responded to the accusations Lavrov “dzhebhat an-Nusra”Britain convened a meeting of the UN security Council on the situation in Manibeli outlined the condition for lifting the sanctions against Rossiiskaia known the value of the gift Putin the inhabitant of Izhevsk trips to Sociocritique law enforcement officers trying to find Saakashvili to award protoclassical 11356 frigates for India will get digitalmaverick Ukrainian President Herman Klimenko returned to Facebook
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The United States was breached, critically vulnerable to nuclear attack
support for Ukraine
The EU does not recognize elections in Crimea
the ban on the native language
Hungary has complained of Ukraine to the UN, OSCE and EU Commissioner
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Poroshenko hoped for a breakthrough Saakashvili across the border of Georgia
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in your opinion
For whom do you support in the conflict between Saakashvili and Poroshenko?
“The Chinese have half of the troops were addicted to”the Tragedy of the migration of peoples need to remember for a common future”It is the Latvian Riflemen has corrupted the whole army”
Exactly one hundred years ago, then Russian Riga fell to the feet of Kaiser Wilhelm II – the city was captured during the short and ill-operation of the German troops, although the first bravely and successfully defended. But the defeat of the Russian army was the reason for the moral decay of the troops, literally poisoned by the propaganda.
The territory of Latvia, the Germans broke through in 1915. Then the Kaiser, by agreeing to temporarily go on the defensive in the West, organized a huge blow on the Eastern front. By mid-August the Germans finally pushed the Russian army out of Poland and rushed to the North-East. August 1 was taken Mitau (Jelgava), September 3, the Russian had to leave Vilna (Vilnius). Libava (Liepaja), where he was one of the main bases of the Russian Baltic fleet, was captured in may 1915.
One of the main goals of the Kaiser becomes Riga.
Island of death
About the course of events the newspaper LOOK told the Latvian historian Oleg the Snow:
“Soldiers of the Northern front failed to stop the enemy along the Western Dvina (Daugava). On the left Bank, the Russian army held the bridgehead on the outskirts of Riga, Ikskyul (Ikskile), Jakobstadt (Jekabpils) and Dvinsk (Daugavpils). At the Riga factory “Russo-Balt” for the army was made staff cars. The same engineer Porokhovshchikov created prototypes wedgies “Rover”, which was supposed to arm with machine guns, but the continuation of the work prevented the evacuation of the plant. In 1916 German forces tried to destroy the Russian bridgehead on the left Bank of the Dvina, but despite the losses, Russian troops held their position.
To reverse the situation, on 25 September under the Ikskyul (ikšķile) the Germans used poison gas. Defending the bridgehead Kamenetsky 173rd infantry regiment perished almost all.
Significant losses incurred and the 176th infantry regiment Perevolochenskogo. But, even choking gases, these regiments repelled the attacks of the enemy. To reinforce the depleted defenders of the bridgehead was sent to the Latvian Riflemen, held the beachhead in April and September 1916.
Siberian shelf held the position until July, 1917. This small piece of land with an area of just two square kilometers went down in history as the “Island of death”: behind the river, and from the front – the enemy, fully postrelease foothold. Communication with the right Bank were supported only by two narrow floating bridge”.
The idea of creating a purely Latvian forces – later the famous Latvian Riflemen came from the commander of the North-Western front, General of infantry Mikhail Alekseyev. Prior to this, the indigenous people of Latvia are distributed on a “normal” military units or have completed the volunteer connection of people’s guards used for the protection of the Ust-Dvinsk fortress. However, Patriotic Latvians, especially among students, has repeatedly advocated the creation of national units.
In the end, the troops of the Kaiser trampled their own land. This attitude towards the Germans, mindful of the Baltic German barons, was very negative.
In August of 1915 in Riga started recording volunteers. On the first day of statement filed 71 people, and three battalions managed to create in a very short time. The first battles with their participation took place on 25 October, near the railway station of Mangali near Riga, October 29, on the banks of the river Misa and 31 August waters. Then Russian troops managed to push the Germans back to Kurland.
At the end of these fights already announced a General mobilization of Latvians, which was established six battalions. By the end of 1916 total number of soldiers in these units reached 39 thousand, and of them created a separate Latvian infantry division, divided into two brigades – under the command of Andrew Auzance and August Misina.
The most serious battles of this period took place near Kekava in July and on the “Island of death” in September. This tiny piece of land next to the station ikšķile March served as a springboard for intense battles. After the above-mentioned gas attack, nearly 1400 officers and soldiers, who had no gas masks, were subjected to poisoning. The Latvian Riflemen, deployed to help the Russian troops had gas masks, but completely poisonous gases they are not saved.
Eight days the 2nd battalion of Riga withstood the attacks of the soldiers of the Kaiser, 120 of his men were poisoned. During those days, were killed 167 people.
On machine Gun hill
In late 1916 and early 1917, fierce fighting took place in swamps Ciralsky between the Babite lake, Olaine, and is widely known for the machine Gun slide. The famous writer Vilis Lacis described these events:
“Now fly up in the air, two red missiles, heard given in a low voice command, and gray shelves are set in motion. Dark wave rolls forward, the forks moves and spreads are already on the other side of a fence, as hollow water, left and right. Like a broken dam the river, they join on the battlefield, rapid stream rushing through the ravines and plains of inertia shocks spill into high earth mound and destroying and flooding everything in its path, rolled over the parapet and jump from three-meter height on the head of a bewildered enemy.
Together with Latvians on the offensive rush Siberian arrows. The silence is over. Even in obstacles gunmen began to mow rifle bullets and machine gun fire. Among the cries coming heard the groans of the wounded and the death rattles of the dying.
Here one falls, and there breaks off in mid-sentence cry of another warrior, as if an invisible hand clamped over his mouth, but the rapid flow of gunmen hurtling forward. Strained hoarse voice, tired from running thousands of Breasts. Buzzing the earth under the feet of the advancing regiments, the clang of bayonets, hitting each other, knock butts, heard the command, the air tear grenades. Crushing force of floods floods blockhouses and dugouts. One by one silenced the German guns. In the dark visible to the naked running figure, and send them after rifle fire spitting”.
According to the Pow, in the battle of Riga was attended by a lot of people staked out a place in history.
“In March 1916, near Dvinsk, near the village nichole took the position of 5th hussar regiment, which served as a warrant officer Nikolai Gumilev went to the front as a volunteer in September 1914. In the Kargopol regiment served Konstantin Rokossovsky, also departed the army as a volunteer. The other trooper, who fought under the Dvina, is a full cavalier of St. George’s cross, Hero of Soviet Union Ivan Tyulenev, during the Great Patriotic war, the commander of the southern and Transcaucasian fronts.”
“At the end of the year the command of the Northern front has decided to hold a so-called Mitavskiy operation in Latvia better known as the “Christmas battles”, – continues the story the historian. – Mitevska the operation began on 23 Dec 1916. Planned breakout of the German positions in the area from swamps to Tirol Olaya (Olaine), access to the river AA (Lielupe), Ekau (Iecava) and the acquisition of Matavai. 12th army (commander-General Radko-Dmitriev) was achieved in three operational groups: Babite, Tingshi and Olishi. Fierce fighting took place around the so-called Gun hill. During the offensive, a group of revolutionary minded soldiers refused to attack. Heads of performance (92 persons) were brought to court-martial and executed. By the end January 11, 1917, the offensive was suspended.”
And then was overthrown autocracy, Russia was proclaimed a Republic. The country has established a duality: on the one hand, the Provisional government, Soviets of workers, soldiers and peasants ‘ deputies.
“Ill-considered orders of a Provisional government headed by Kerensky was undermined discipline in the army. The regimental commanders were deprived of the opportunity to order and could only call to battle “for the salvation of the Fatherland and of freedom” as it was fashionable to speak in those days. In these circumstances, the majority of Latvian Riflemen sided with the Bolsheviks, placing as its goal the creation in Russia of Latvian and Latgalian autonomy. Taking advantage of the indiscipline of the army and the collapse of the front, the Germans on 1 September launched an offensive on Riga,” – says Oleg the Snow.
By the time the defense capability of the Russian troops were already greatly diminished. Food and ammunition is not enough, but revolutionary agitators appeared more. Soldiers simply refused to fight.
General Nikolai Ruzsky has described Riga and Dvinsk as “the misfortune of the Northern front, two promoted nest.” And the commander of the 12th army, General Yuzefovich denounced the commander of the Northern front General Cheremisov:
“With regard to the Latvian Riflemen, then they have corrupted the entire army and now lead it for themselves”.
To prepare a new offensive in this area arrived in person “glavnokamanduyshi” – the head of the Provisional government Alexander Kerensky. But the operation, which began on 23 July, failed in connection with the boycott from the majority. The Germans, meanwhile, were carefully studied with observation towers and airplanes Russian defensive positions.
The Germans managed to achieve blazing success through the use of advanced at that time the tactics of the interaction of artillery and infantry. About the beginning of the attack could signal a multi-day barrage, but instead, the generals of the Kaiser disposed to apply a short but incredibly powerful and carefully targeted strike, which involved about two hundred cannon, howitzer and mortar batteries. Each of them received a clearly defined purpose, which in the moment was literally covered with shells.
Were applied not only to “ordinary” ammunition but shells containing chemical substances (for distgen, chloropicrin and Arsin). Under fire was not only the front line, but the part reserved to the depth of the front to rest. Artillery and the means of communication of the defenders quickly fell into disrepair, and after three hours after the artillery attack, the Germans crossed the Dvina, crossing by its Northern shore.
General Oskar von Hutier threw his 8th army in the breakthrough on a narrow site and succeeded: on the evening of 2 September, the Germans broke into the suburbs of Riga, and a day later, the Russian army cleared the city. Sam Kaiser Wilhelm arrived there in order to congratulate his victorious troops.
The composition of old Russia, Riga will not return.
In November 1918 in the German-occupied city was proclaimed the independent Republic of Latvia. Then Riga was temporarily captured by the Communists.
Possessed in the Baltic, the German General rüdiger von der Goltz, even after his country had recognized the defeat in the war, acted as the last soldier of the collapsed Empire. The main task he believed to be a reflection of the Bolshevik offensive, and managed to cobble together a motley army, consisting of Latvian and German volunteers, the Russian whites and the soldiers of the German regular army.
As settled in Libau Latvian government of Karlis Ulmanis focused on the Entente, von Goltz tried to shift it and replace the Pro-German government of Andrievs Niedra. The coup was only partially successful, for England and France Ulmanis remained the legitimate head of Latvia. However, successfully repelled the attack of red with the South, von Goltz moved its troops to Riga, and on 22 may, the capital of Latvia fell.
In order to hold their positions and not to run into conflict with the British and the French General decided to act under a false flag. And this banner was the slogan “United and indivisible Russia”.
In the summer of 1919 in the Latvian Courland, supported the Germans began to form a white “West Russian army” under the command of Pavel Bermondt-Avalov. The agreement was signed, in which German soldiers could join the army. As a reward they were promised money and land holdings in the Baltic States. It all looked tempting, and in a short time the army of Bermont increased almost ten times. But instead of having to go to Petrograd, he moved to Riga to overthrow Ulmanis.
By 9 October lermontovskie part occupied the suburbs of the city. But then Bermondt had the fight with Yudenich about the General strategy of action, in addition, he suggested that the government of the Republic to conclude a truce with it. Taking advantage of the pause to help the Latvians pulled four Estonian armored trains and the British squadron, who organized the attack of a position of marmontova. Started resistant positional battles, and by the morning of 11 November 1919 part of Bermondt knocked out of the left-Bank part of the city. On this the tumult of war, to Riga ended.