Possible collision with Earth asteroid or the prospect of a third world war — not the most dangerous threat to humanity, say experts at the American Management on Aeronautics and space research (NASA). In their opinion, a far greater danger are located on our planet, so-called supervolcanoes. The eruption of even one of them, experts say NASA may have fatal consequences for all people.
To again pay close attention to the SUPERVOLCANO, and specialists pushed the recent activity of one of them, located in Yellowstone national Park in the United States. After the solar Eclipse in late August, seismologists recorded several aftershocks of magnitude 3 to 4. This has forced to speak again about the fact that the Yellowstone SUPERVOLCANO is awakened.
The concept of “SUPERVOLCANO” is not scientific in the full sense of the word. Synonymous to this definition is also sometimes is the concept of “Caldera”. We are talking about the basin of volcanic origin, different from the usual crater topography and large size. That is, if the crater is to understand the upland (traditional cone-shaped), the Caldera, on the contrary, is a kind of depression — and a large area. For example, the SUPERVOLCANO Toba (Indonesia) it is almost 1800 square kilometers.
But it’s not just the terrain and area. Specialists determine the supervolcanoes as volcanoes with the highest rate of volcanic explosively (8 or 7 points on the 8-point scale), whose activity could lead to global and long-term climate change.
For example, NASA experts have calculated that the eruption of the Yellowstone Caldera would lead to the death of all life within a radius of at least 100 km from the epicenter. And the released gases and dust would have triggered a long winter on the planet.
Two years ago, American geologists have concluded that without significant external impact (i.e. no impact) the Caldera to break can not. However, now say NASA experts, it is necessary to take preventive measures.
In particular, they offer under a lot of pressure to be pumped into the SUPERVOLCANO through a small bore cold water. As planned, it will cool down under “cover” Caldera hot magma, and then appear back.
This idea has been suggested earlier, as the SUPERVOLCANO located not only on land but also under water. And there, according to experts, the danger of the eruption below — because of the low temperature.
Experts differ in their estimates of the number of supervolcanoes on the planet, it ranges from 15 to 20.
∎ Caldera La Garita (USA), the last eruption of 27.8 million years ago.
∎ Caldera island Park (United States), the last eruption 2.1 million years ago.
∎ The Karymshina Caldera (Russia), the last eruption 1.3 million years ago.
∎ The Valles Caldera (USA), the last eruption of 1.12 million years ago.
∎ Caldera long valley (USA), the last eruption of 760 thousand years ago.
∎ The Yellowstone Caldera (USA), the last eruption 640 thousand years ago.
∎ Caldera Whakamaru (New Zealand), the last eruption of 254 thousand years ago.
∎ Reporoa (New Zealand), the last eruption of 230 thousand years ago.
∎ The volcano ASO (Japan), the last eruption 80 thousand years ago.
∎ Lake Toba (Indonesia), the last eruption of 74 thousand years ago.
∎ Campi Flegrei (Italy), the last eruption of 39.2 thousand years ago.
∎ Lake Taupo (New Zealand), the last explosion 26.5 thousand years ago.
∎ Aira Caldera (Japan), the last eruption 22 million years ago.
∎ Lacher see (Germany), the last eruption of 12.9 thousand years ago.
∎ Caldera Kikai (Japan), the last eruption of 6.3 thousand years ago.
∎ Caldera Baekdu (China), the last eruption in 969.
∎ The Tambora Caldera (Indonesia), last eruption in 1815.