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Wednesday, March 21, 2018

“Skull and bones”, “the ivy League”: how universities are preparing the world’s elite

In September, the universities of all the light again open their doors. A good education is important in any profession but for members of the global elite, the choice of school career-defining. Even anti-American dictatorships can’t resist to send “heirs to the throne” in a prestigious University abroad. What can we say, for example, about the United States, where the crust Harvard and Yale do not even begin to climb the political Olympus. Even if in school, the future ruler of the world does not Shine, the University gives him a lot of other benefits. For example, informal relations that are built between students, including during participation in secret societies with sinister names “Skull and bones”, “Wolf’s head” or “Scroll and key”… the “MK” to figure out how to prestigious universities forged by the global elite.

photo: ru.wikipedia.org

Under the sign of the ivy

The Association of the most prestigious US universities called “ivy League”. It includes eight schools: Brown, Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Cornell, Penn, Princeton universities and Dartmouth College. Most of them were founded before the Declaration of independence of the United States. In our days this has been the history on the political Olympus is not only for Americans, but for many of the world’s elite. Although “ivy League” are now called educational institutions themselves, initially this title was wearing their College sports teams.

Why ivy? In the nineteenth century, American universities have spread the tradition of planting ivy around the old buildings academic buildings. In the early twentieth century this plant was so firmly became associated with the oldest universities of the US East coast, which became their symbol.

Informal leadership in the number of graduates-presidents belongs to Harvard. His Alma mater could call eight chapters of the White house, among them Barack Obama. Second place for Yale — it is studied for five presidents, including representatives of the powerful Bush clan. American analysts joke that politics in the US is not a debate of Democrats and Republicans, and the opposition of Harvard and Yale. And they are partly right.

During the election campaign of 1988, George Bush senior (graduate of Yale) ridiculed the foreign policy views of his opponent, Michael Dukakis, calling them “born in the salons of Harvard,” that is elitist and out of touch. As aptly noted by American journalists, in fact, for most voters there is no difference between Harvard and Yale is not, because both these universities are considered to be the abode of the arrogant, filthy rich and snobbish elite. Therefore, the charges Bush’s Dukakis looked ridiculous, “like a teapot accused of elitism kettle for boiling water,” wrote the journalist Russell Baker.

The reputation of the universities “ivy League” is not based on nothing. Learning them is a lot of money, so their students are, as a rule, representatives of the upper class. Although the system of the education grants and scholarships for the most talented (but poor) students are more “diluted” environment Golden youth “ivy League”, it is still predominantly upmarket. For example, in 2013, 46% of Harvard students were from 3.8 per cent richest households in America. Even skin color still plays a role: from 45 to 70% of the graduates of this Association is white Anglo-Saxon Protestants (in America this term is so popular that is often used in abbreviation — WASP). And only about 6% black.

The “property qualification” begins to work before entering University. To withstand the exam to a prestigious University, having studied in a public high school, it is extremely difficult — not the level of training. Therefore, the first step on the way to the ivy League is a private school that not everyone can identify their children. But the investment at the initial stage, usually pay off.

Barack Obama, for example, was born in a very ordinary family. But grandparents do not regret the money to transfer him from public school to private, and this allowed him to become a student, first at Columbia University and then Harvard. Of course, in the monastery WASP Obama looked like a black sheep. But the lack of connections and pedigree he made up for in talent and hard work. So, the future President became the first black editor of the University of the Harvard Law Review.

To get to the seat of the head of the White house and in a roundabout way. For example, through a military career: presidents Ulysses S. Grant and Dwight D. Eisenhower graduated from the elite military Academy of West point.

Terrible secret

Inside prestigious American universities, there are superprestizhnogo group — a secret society. In them was the most influential graduates of the ivy League, the future rulers of the world. What is discussed at meetings of these unions, of course, a mystery for the family seals. The most famous University closed society of America — “Skull and bones”, it is based at Yale University. At different times its members were both President Bush, Secretary of state John Kerry, as well as many future Ministers, governors and big businessmen.

Even after graduation from the Alma mater members of the “brotherhood” do not pluck the contact with each other and meet regularly. One of these meetings is deer island in the river St. Lawrence, which is entirely belongs to the “Skull and bones”. On the territory of the Yale society also has its own building — the legendary “Tomb”, sinister in appearance and heavy building, erected in the second half of XIX — early XX century at the expense of shareholders.

Become a member of “Skull and bones”, not everyone can. Almost all members of society — men, white Anglo-Saxon Protestants. It is also important to come from a rich and influential family. Though to break into the inner sanctum of Yale and through sport: the “Skull and bones” taking outstanding players and captains of the University teams, even if they represent national minorities. The first black — College football star Levi Jackson has been invited into this society in 1950. Women in the Union began to accept only in 1992, after an acrimonious debate, representations of dissent and a vote by a whisker.

Members of the “Skull and bones”, of course, accused of snobbery, and not without reason. They built their society around an atmosphere of ominous mystery and secrecy that sometimes it even looks funny. In a College fraternity, for example, in the course of the custom of stealing the skull, which (supposedly) belonged to famous people, and as a trophy to bring in the “Tomb”. Or give everyone a nickname taken from myths and literature. But a costume rite of passage more like a ritual from the books about Harry Potter. At least that is so on condition of anonymity, described him as one of the members of a secret Association in an interview with the Atlantic.

The atmosphere of exclusivity in society is maintained at all levels. The chronology of the “Skull and bones” leads from 322 BC. According to one version, this date was chosen because in Athens at this time was established plutocracy: the citizens of the city-States were considered the only ones who possessed at least 2000 drachmas. Watch members of society always transferred forward five minutes: common time, they consider “barbaric”. However, not only the “barbarians” in his circle they call everyone who does not belong to him.

“Skull and bones” is not the only secret society at Yale. This University is considered to be a record for the number of “secret alliances”. In the three most prestigious along with the “Skull and crossbones” enter “Scroll and key” and “Wolf head”. Though many rituals and traditions of these societies took their oldest Yale counterpart, in this case relates only to the fierce rivalry between them. And, despite the fact that among the students of Yale long established tradition to criticize secret society, few of them refuses to touch the mystery, when the opportunity appears.

Pass to the Palace

In the UK, the choice of educational institutions of the elite is not as big as in America. The most prestigious education in the country for which hundreds of years are the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which are United under the informal name Oxbridge. Until the nineteenth century they remained the only universities in Britain, while there appeared six prestigious universities, the so-called “universities of red brick”.

But just look at the statistics to understand who the Albion are still in charge. 27 British Prime Ministers graduated from Oxford 15 — Cambridge. At Oxford, she studied almost all the heads of government of the UK in recent years, including Tony Blair, David Cameron and Theresa may. A total of Oxbridge was about 70 foreign leaders, including monarchs. As a rule, British education chosen by the elites from the former colonies of the United Kingdom, India, Pakistan and Canada.

There is a smithy of personnel for the state apparatus — the national school of administration. Hard to call it a traditional University, because the students usually already have a higher education. Immediately after admission to ENA (the French acronym for the National school of administration), they get bureaucratic position, if they are still there.

As study in this University paid by the state, graduates are required to fulfill their education in the civil service for 10 years. If the newly appointed official resigns state post ahead of schedule, he has to reimburse the Treasury the cost of training is 50-60 thousand Euro. So I had to do the current President of the France Emmanuel Macron, who has gone into large financial holding company after four years as a financial inspector in the Ministry of economy.

National school of administration was created at the initiative of Charles de Gaulle to make the process of selection of civil servants in France as transparent as possible. In ENA’s really no secret societies like Yale University, and free education makes the supply of it available to any talented and ambitious person. However, not all French are like this system. It is believed that the school contributes to the formation of a narrow stratum of elite that controls all politics in the country, but divorced from ordinary people.


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