As said Vladimir Putin, if my grandmother had certain characteristics, she’d be grandpa. If the government really, according to Pro-Kremlin political analysts, enjoyed a record support among the youth, would not be required to read in schools and universities lecture on the dangers of the opposition. Would not need to conduct preventive talks with young men who allow themselves careless statements on social media.
Sociologists and close to the government funds form a propaganda construct of the so-called “Putin majority”, which they invented in the era of high oil prices and social stability. However, there is no “unity of value” around the love for the current rulers of the society no longer is a myth. Power to vote for those who do not see in the political field of other strong players (the ones the government itself and smoothed) or afraid that worse. The real ideological supporters of the government are becoming less and less.
In the 2018 presidential election will be the first to vote voters who during the last campaign was 12 to 17 years. They don’t remember what promises were actually Putin is on his fourth term. And certainly not followed all these years, the progress of failure of the notorious “may decrees”.
The overflowing wave of this spring gave rise to the hypothesis of the emergence of a fundamentally new youth protest in Russia — protest of people whose whole adult life which took place in the Putin era. Conducted by the Center for economic and political reforms the study found that among young people the level of confidence in the President is lower than in other age groups, but still relatively high (about 68%). However, the protest potential is quite significant and cannot be underestimated. Do not approve of Putin’s activities over a quarter (28%) of respondents aged 16 to 24 years. And willingness to support rallies in the city against the authorities expressed together with nearly 40% — is higher than among older generations. Adjusted for the “socially approved answers” there’s clearly something to think about.
Where grow the roots of this dissatisfaction and what is the extent of its possible spread?
The key mechanism of socialization of young people is education. However, with the introduction of the use of injustice in this area has not been overcome. The inequality of starting opportunities begins with the geography of the birth and maturation.
According to the survey, as the main purpose of education, about 68% of respondents cited the acquisition of knowledge and skills for further real personal growth. However, giving a good education schools are located only in major cities, and that is not all. This super-centralization leads to the fact that obtaining a quality higher education to residents of small towns and villages is very difficult.
Moving to the metropolis entails the inevitable financial costs that can’t always afford families from the provinces, with the exception of a few local “elite”. A minimum amount of academic scholarships is 1484 of the ruble for students and 539 rubles — in institutions of secondary vocational education. Plus problems with the hostels have almost three hundred higher educational institutions of Russia of the 900 available.
Nonresident students, in fact, forced along with learning to go to work (or sit on the parent’s neck), which dilutes the educational process. In parallel, the education system is continuously commercialized: it reduces the number of students enrolled on a budgetary basis, is at the moment less than half of the total (2.1 million of the 4.7 million persons).
Russia does not use adequately the personal talents of each. Not created the institutional conditions for their implementation. Maybe in some village N-tion region is now forced to chop wood for a pittance of a possible Steve jobs or Sergey Brin. And even if this home-grown jobs in his shed will create a new device, no one would need either in his village or in other places of our great country. But if he learn how to “cut the loot” and “pressing business”, then perhaps the guy could be helpful.
But imagine: yesterday’s student heroically overcame all the hardships, he lived from hand to mouth, worked nights, parents got into the credits, and the diploma is finally obtained. It’s time to successfully find employment and recoup all costs. But there it was. According to Rosstat, more than 11% of graduates can’t find jobs. Many (over a third!) faced with the challenge of finding jobs and are forced to accept low-skilled jobs. And it Rosstat, loving brush figures about life in our country.
It is not surprising that a third of young people believe the existence of ties, patronage a necessary condition for success, pointing to the tradition of nepotism, employment connections, the formation of “dynasties”. Many interviewees believe that without the patronage to succeed is impossible: “individual achievement is the main component, but it does not give the correct result: according to his ability to achieve nothing if there are no ties.”
Among the youth dominates the view about the desirable role of the state as a social regulator. About 55% of the respondents to some extent agree that in a justly organized society, the state should equalize the social rights of the people to provide for their welfare, not to give such a strong unlimited power over the weak.
Currently income young professionals (and pay them truly humiliating wages) is not enough even to eat and dress, not to mention the purchase of housing — first condition, creating a family, having children. This is good if someone can help the parents, often at the expense obtained in the Soviet period residential meters; and if not? Eternal rent housing? After all, the same mortgage in Russia is too expensive. For the first quarter of 2017, the rate was about 12%. For comparison: in the USA and 2.7% in France and 3.1%, Germany — 4.2%. While there are benefits for young people.
The planning horizon in more than half of the respondents does not go beyond one or two years: 27% of respondents plan their lives only for the next few months, 24 per cent in a year or two ahead.
The problem of gaining socio-economic independence for the masses of young families becoming virtually unsolvable for many years. Therefore, the majority of respondents said in a survey about social injustice in the present social order. And noted the importance of a systematic approach: they have an understanding that their own difficulties with education, employment, standard of living, etc. — are directly linked to the socio-political structure of the country as a whole.
Thus, half of respondents said the priority problems of the country of corruption. The young people meant not only a narrow meaning of this word is “bribery”, but also the overall decomposition of the system, the arbitrariness of officials, embezzlement, abuse of official position, privilege, close to the power of people and their offspring. They talked about the imperfection of the political system, the actual failure of the Constitution, the country’s movement to “tsarism”, the absence of a real opposition, irresponsibility of the authorities.
Hand power is the fact that the majority of respondents are not yet ready to render a final “verdict” country. On a fundamentally wrong way of development say 36% of respondents, although it is a very high figure for the young generation. However, there are alarming statistics: the lack of social mobility and the inability of the state to give young people a future provoke immigrant sentiment. 47,7% (!) respondents stated that it is willing in principle to leave to live and work abroad, explaining that much greater in developed countries: “the Perspective is wider, than in Russia, a higher quality of life”. Young people like the mentality of Western man: “There are completely different people — free, liberated, they live in a different cultural environment.” Standard design, based on the ideas of patriotism, though, and resonate with young people, but do not make them optimistic. Everything in the classics: the dramatic gap between love for Russia and a sense that here you do not particularly need and to live in dignity requires knowledge and talent and money and connections.
Protestest of those interviewed is largely value-based, altruistic nature. The discontent of young people beyond their everyday interests — they see the roots of their problems and empathize with his people. This means that the growing negativity cannot stifle simple and fast methods: primitive propaganda, demonstrative dealing with private matters, etc.
Moreover, clumsy attempts to cope with the beginnings of a youth rebellion by the teachers ‘ notations and the power of intimidation even more politicize a generation grown up. The desire to stop the protest only fuels the debate and reinforces the sense of injustice, the imperfections of the system.
The only chance for the authorities to avoid while on hold “youth revolution” is to realize that the problem is not that a guy or a girl fighting for the government on the Internet and raise posters. And in those social distortions that have pushed them to it. And that these distortions are the real threat to the government.