Astronomers found in the constellation Pisces unusual object, which occupies an intermediate position between giant planets and brown dwarfs, failed stars, according to a paper published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.
“Translation SIMP0136 of the number of brown dwarfs to the elite club of “independent” planets have escaped from their stars, was a pleasant discovery for us. In the past we’ve already found hints of the existence of weather on this object, even when we thought it was a brown dwarf, and its study will help us to shed light on the composition and behavior of the atmosphere on other exoplanets,” explains étienne Artigo (Ethienne Artigau) at the University of Montreal (Canada).
Brown dwarfs, the first of which was found in 1995, astronomers call transitional objects between stars and planets. A lot of these stars failed in less than 7% of the mass of the Sun is too small for the occurrence of thermonuclear reactions in their bowels. Therefore, brown dwarfs gradually extinguished and cooled.
In recent years, scientists have discovered several new brown dwarfs, the presence of the weather on them, lead and mineral “clouds” and a number of other properties that have led many astronomers to believe that they are actually very large planets, not stars.
The artigo and his colleagues found that the boundary between planets and stars is even more blurred, examining properties, as previously thought, one of the most cool and unusual brown dwarfs object SIMP0136 in the constellation Pisces. It was opened in 2006 in one of the clusters of young stars born about 200 million years ago at a distance of 20 light years from Earth.
The short distance to this star has enabled the astronomer to accurately measure the temperature of its surface, to calculate its chemical composition and to reveal other properties, including hints of the existence of the difficult weather conditions in the atmosphere SIMP0136. All it tells Artigo, pointed to the fact that SIMP0136 is unusually cool and interesting small brown dwarf mass.
Observing this object last year, astronomers decided to re-measure its mass, and velocity of movement across the sky. These observations, it tells Artigo helped “brothers” that dwarf in the cluster, with similar age and speed, but more vivid and easy to learn.
The results of these routine measurements was very unexpected. It turned out that SIMP0136 is exactly on the borderline between giant planets, like Jupiter, and brown dwarfs. So, its weight is only 12-13 times more than the largest planet in the Solar system, and the radius is only 20% more than the Jupiter. Together with a relatively low surface temperature is about 800 degrees Celsius – all this allows to consider SIMP0136 “pure” brown dwarf.
Scientists believe that this paleoplanet-Prosveta formed in the company of other luminaries, but then she was thrown out of the system as a planet-“the derelict”. These planets are especially interesting to astronomers, because their radiation does not “clog” the light of the brighter stars that can accurately determine the composition of their atmosphere, to monitor the movement of large flows of air in it and reveal other physical and chemical mysteries.