Power in China only seems to be a monolith, the same Politburo Brezhnev era. In fact, at the top of China is highly competitive, coupled with the intrigues and struggle for a place under the sun. Given the fact that Moscow and Beijing are now “special relationship”, it is useful to understand the intra hands of the PRC and the degree of influence of each of the groups.
The modern system of government in China is complicated and confusing due to the fact that it combines an extensive system of party, state and parliamentary institutions, on the ground, each of the branches of government are duplicated by the representatives of the centre. However, there are a number of influential informal groups formed within the party and government at the territorial, kinship or Guild principles, which have a huge impact on decision making. It is possible to allocate at least six such groups.
“Titsian”. Crown princes
“The group got under a skating rink of the campaign against corruption after the son of Liu Tanana died in an accident at Ferrari, in which were two half-naked girls”
It’s not so much the grouping (unlike the “Shanghai” or “Tuanpai”, common core, goals and objectives “of the princes” do not exist), but the term used to denote the younger generations of the old party elite. The term originated in the early twentieth century, against the heirs of President yuan Shikai, declared himself in 1915 by the Emperor. In 1920-e – 1930-e years “crown Prince” called relatives of the leaders of the Kuomintang of Chiang Kai-shek, Soong may-Ling, Chen Lifu and kung Xiangxi (the latter being the richest man in pre-revolutionary China and a direct descendant of Confucius in the 75th generation, was married to the sister of the wives of Chiang Kai-shek and sun Yat-sen). At the present time “crown Prince” is in the narrow sense of the family “Eight Immortals”, named by analogy with the Taoist deities, that is, the old Communists who survived all purges of Mao and accumulated by the 1980-1990 years, significant political weight. Among the first “immortal” is Deng Xiaoping. Also in the list always include the President of China in 1983-1988 (then the post was technical Chairman was not the de facto head of state) Whether Sanjana and sometimes Bo For the father now disgraced Bo Xilai. Sometimes instead it appears the father of the current leader of the PRC XI Jinping, Vice Chairman of the NPC PC in 1988-1993, XI Zhongxun.
Thus, the now famous “princes” – this is XI Jinping and Bo Xilai. Among other well-known “heirs” – Chairman of the China Association of the disabled son of Deng Xiaoping, Deng Nan, paralyzed in an attack by red guards during the “cultural revolution”, the Lieutenant General of the PLA Li Ping (the son of Lee Sanana), President of state development Bank of China Chen yuan (son of Chen Yuan), major General of the PLA Mao Blue (the grandson of Mao Zedong), as well as children of the last President of China, leader of the “Shanghai” group of Jiang Zemin – founder of Grace Semiconductor Manifacturing Corporation, the author of a thesis on semiconductors and current employer fourth son of George HW Bush, Neil Bush, Jiang Mangan and major General of the PLA Jiang Manican.
The son of a famous Chinese revolutionary, President of China in the years 1959-1968 Liu Shaoqi Lieutenant-General of the military police Liu yuan and the son of Wen Jiabao, the former Premier of the state Council of the PRC government, Hu Jintao, Chairman of China satellite communications Wen Unisun short list of the most prominent “crown princes”. In total, this group includes 229 people, which unites only one – all of them are descendants of the older generation of Chinese leaders.
Most of the “Prince” has achieved its present position in Chinese politics through the use of not so much big names, how many connections their parents, whose colleagues wanted to give it in reliable hands. This may explain the fact that a significant part of children party leaders have made a career in the army – and Vice versa. Some of the “heirs” are criticized for excessive multiplication of family capital. Thus, according to the International consortium of investigative journalism, for 12 people from the list of registered offshore companies in the British virgin Islands. “Princes” was much easier to move up the career ladder than their colleagues who did not have behind a powerful family. But in 1997, their positions had suffered quite a severe blow, when XI and, Mr. Pufan barely passed as a candidate member of the CPC Central Committee and Bo Xilai, no one was able to obtain this status. After 10 years of XI and Bo were seen as key party leaders of the fifth generation, in all cities under the Central government of China mayor took one of the “princes.” It is not excluded that the rise of “the heirs” was promoted by Jiang Zemin, who was forced to retire by age, but wanted to preserve its influence on political processes in the country.
Speaking of age. The word “Prince” is usually associated with the young major, but in China, the young major is a person of about 50 years, and just in a major is usually in age from 65 to 70.
Jiang Zemin (photo: Staff/Reuters)
Under the “Shanghai people” understand those who made his career in the party the Shanghai party committees during the rule of Jiang Zemin. Besides Jiang, the most famous representatives of this group is the Vice Chairman of the PRC in the administration of Hu Jintao, former member of the PC of the political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee Zeng Tingjun, former Chairman of National political consultative Council of China Jia Qinglin, who died in 2007 at his post of first Vice-Premier of the state Council Huang Ju and deprived of party membership in 2006 in connection with the improper spending of funds from the Shanghai social insurance Fund, the former Secretary of the Shanghai CPC Committee Chen Liangyu. The latter is currently serving an 18 year sentence.
Experts on Chinese politics believe that the “Shanghai clique” was formed in 2004 Jiang Stamina, which needed their people in the new leadership, in order to prevent a sharp change of course from Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao, if suddenly it will happen. In particular, the efforts of this group were blocked reshuffle in the Politburo at the fifth plenary session of the 16th Congress of the CPC. Also “Shanghainese” stalled reform Minister Wen Jiabao, aimed at reducing the growth of infrastructure and the overheating of the Chinese real estate market. Subsequently, since 2007, a number of “Shanghai” ran in “clique Jinhua”. And with the coming to power of XI Jinping, the influence of this group fell almost to zero.
Hu Jintao (photo: Alexei Druzhinin/TASS)
So named by analogy with the “clique Jinhua” that existed during the Civil war in China and consisted of Chinese nationalists who subsequently fled to Taiwan. Formed from alumni of Beijing Tsinghua University, known limited percentage of the studied representatives of the party elite. The leader of this group think the former President of China Hu Jintao. In the period of his reign among the nine PC members of the political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee had four graduate Jinhua, among the 24 members of the Politburo – among five and other party and state leaders 10 people. Most representatives of this group belong to the fourth generation of Chinese leaders tend to democratic reforms, and some after the release of Jinhua, is generally studied in the United States.
This group replaced the “Shanghai people” and enjoyed the greatest influence in the period from 2008 to 2012. The nearest ally of Hu Jintao in this group and the main lobbyist of its interests in the current generation of the Chinese leadership believe the Vice-Premier of the state Council and one of two women in the current composition of the Politburo, Li Yandong, which can also be a member of the “Tuanpai”. The group also includes Chairman of one of the parliamentary opposition parties, the Democratic League government of Taiwan Lin Wenyi. Some analysts referred to as a “clique Jinhua,” and former President of the PC national people’s Congress Wu Bangguo, although others refer it to the “Shanghai people”.
Most of the senior graduates Jinhua, noting in Chinese politics and influence of the members of the fourth generation of the Chinese elite, have either died, or retired.
“Tuanpai”. The faction of the young Communist League
At the moment, is a powerful opposition “crown princes”, and consists of former functionaries of the Chinese young Communist League. The term “tuanpai” emerged in the 1980-ies and was already used to criticism of the Secretary General of the CCP Hu Yaobang, overly surrounded himself with scouts. The current “Tuanpai” has nothing to do with the band of the 80s, lost all influence after the death of their leader and the ensuing events in Tiananmen square. After Hu Jintao (ironically made a party career in the League under Hu Yaobang, although not who was his protege) came to power, many began to look to his comrades in the Komsomol. “Tuanpai” consists mainly of immigrants from the people who do not have influential relatives or connections, and therefore is the center of the populist wing is configured in opposition to the “elitists” of the “Shanghai” or “crown princes”.
Some observer believe the leader of the faction of Hu Jintao, the other – the current Premier of the state Council of China Li Keqiang. Among the alleged members of this group Vice-President Li yuanchao, the second Vice-Premier Liu Yandong, party Secretary of Guangdong province, member of the political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee Hu Chunhua (who is also one of the most famous leaders of the next, sixth generation of the Chinese elite) and the Chairman of the Supreme court of China Zhou Qiang.
“New Jeszensky Army”
The name for this group came up with a Hong Kong journalist MA Haolan to refer to Chinese politicians who have made a career in Zhejiang province, when Secretary of the party Committee thereof, was XI. The term “river road” is a poetic name of the river Cantan occurring in the province, which si used in his philosophical book “Czyzselska mind.” Members of this group most close associates of XI and will play a very important role in Chinese politics in the coming years, especially after 2017. The most influential of these is the former party Secretary of Taizhou, former mayor of Hangzhou, according to rumors, one of the Vice-President of Committee of national security of China Cai Qi, Deputy head of the propaganda Department of the CPC Huang chunmin, CEO of the Chinese giant of the steel industry Corporation Baosteel Chen Dejun and Secretary of CPC Committee of Jilin province to Ulaanbaatar. Apparently, the group is also the most ardent Explorer program XI Jinping’s anti-luxury and a good contrast to the “Tuanpai” in its populist rhetoric.
A group of politicians and businessmen from Shanxi province, organized on the basis of traditional Chinese society. It was said to have included members and alternate members of the CPC Central Committee, as well as top businessmen. They were all going every three months in the mountains West of Beijing. The existence of this group with absolute certainty is still not confirmed, because the meetings were not kept any records. The leader of the “sishanskogo Assembly” was not there.
The greatest activity of this group occurred in the period from 2007 to 2014, when it attracted attention in connection with the arrest of Director of the State energy administration Liu Tanana, now sentenced to life in prison. In addition to Liu Tanana, the group classifies sentenced recently to 20 years in prison multimilyarder Dean Shumao, who performed the role of Treasurer, the former second Chairman of the CPPCC Ling Jihua, in respect of which the investigation is carried out, his older brother Lin Jance also under investigation, and former Vice-Governor of Shanxi province Chen of Shuangpin. The group was one of a small but very influential political cells within the party and got under a skating rink XI Jinping announced a campaign against corruption after the son of Liu Tanana died in an accident at Ferrari, in which were two half-naked girls.
Which of these groups collect nine gates, and what – thirteen orphans (using the terminology of Mahjong), that is, will have the most significant impact on the politics and economy of modern China, with confidence, we learn only after 2017, when the results will be announced the first five years of the new generation of Chinese elite.