What is now usually understood by feminism, it is more correct to call “third wave feminism”. In his rhetoric the main place is not a struggle for women’s rights, and “positive discrimination” – the restriction of the rights of men. International women’s day – a good occasion to talk about how and why initially sensible idea suddenly came to like.
The issue of gender equality was raised in the XVIII century, during the struggle for US independence and the French revolution, but decided it was not. Separate experiments with the provision of the electoral rights a citizen of the Corsican Republic or a resident of the state of new Jersey took place, but the norm, this practice did not. And here it should be emphasized that the question of suffrage was although extremely important from the point of view of equality, but obviously not paramount. In many countries, women of those times were not even guaranteed the property rights of all, including the dowry was owned by husband or, in the absence thereof, by another male relative, which, of course, put women in an extremely dependent and vulnerable position.
“Evil tongues then remembered that March in peaceful cities like not only weavers, but women of easy virtue”
In the nineteenth century, the mechanization of labor and the demand for working hands bring women into the factories. They begin to work equally with men, and often better than men, but pay them much less. It was the middle of the XIX century begins with a serious and violent struggle of various women’s organizations for the rights of the “weaker sex”.
A pioneer once again by the United States, in the back they breathed the former metropolis, and already behind them moved up the rest of the countries and peoples of the West. The explanation of the leadership of the Anglo-Saxons in this matter is very simple. First, they have existed the election, that is, women were fighting for something, while most of Europe remained under the rule of monarchs (often Queens or empresses). Second, in the US, the entry of women into traditionally male occupations has accelerated the civil war and later wars often forced the women to enter nontraditional roles, speaking the driver of emancipation. Third, the determination of the Americans strengthened the vesting of the right to vote freed blacks.
Women who fought for the right to elect and be elected, were called “suffragettes” (from the English suffrage – the right to vote). First they honestly tried to go the legal route, especially since the text of the 14th amendment to the U.S. Constitution gave voting rights to all U.S. citizens regardless of their skin color, and citizenship in the American suffragettes, of course, it was. That is, formally, women suffrage has already been granted, but the government did not comply, and suffragettes went to court. Subsequently, the same road in the United States is successfully passed and the LGBT movement in the struggle for same-sex marriage. Suffragettes are less fortunate – the Supreme court has three times rejected their demands.
In the seventies of the nineteenth century two American suffragettes through their supporting politicians were able to introduce in Congress an amendment granting women the right to vote in the literal wording – and the next 30 years it lay under the cloth. However, sometimes women were able to achieve local success – in the late sixties of the right to vote came to women now conservative Wyoming and Utah. To extend this practice to the Federal level was only to the end of the second decade of the twentieth century.
Until suffragettes and their sympathizers went to marches on Washington and new York, wrote manifestos and tried to vote in various elections, for which they were arrested by the police. Thus arose the coalition, which soon disintegrated, and the participants became mortal enemies. There is a traditional routine of almost any protest movement in Western countries.
8 March 1908 15 thousand American women was organized in new York procession, which demanded equal conditions of remuneration and the granting of voting rights. Two years later the German Communist Clara Zetkin proposed to make this day International women’s day. Evil tongues then remembered that March in peaceful cities like not only weavers, but women of easy virtue, demanding a higher payment for your hard work (and really, you can pick up some examples from civil protests of prostitutes that took place in early March), but then, they are evil tongues.
However, an active struggle for the rights of women in the States and outside the visible result did not bring. Women are still paid less and in most cases refused to participate in the elections. The conservatives insisted that a man as head of the family decides in the interests of the whole “cell of society”, including women, children and others held by him in the care of individuals, hence, additional electoral right to women not necessary. But at this point in the development of civilization once again the war intervened, this time – the First world war. It not only destroyed the three empires, but largely liberated women. Men became less and more and more women are mastering new skills, and the restriction of their rights looked retrograde.
At the end of the second decade of the twentieth century the world witnessed a wave of recognition for women’s voting rights, in the United States in connection with the complex procedure of amending the Constitution the process was somewhat delayed. President Woodrow Wilson tried hard to push through a comprehensive amendment through Congress since his election in 1912, but to do this he was only at the end of the second period – in the 1920s.
It is worth noting that the congressmen and Supreme court, repeatedly repulsing the attacks of suffragettes, did not only natural chauvinism, but for fear of the possible consequences. Due to the lack of practice, women are poorly versed in the issues of governance and were susceptible to populist and radical ideas (for example, the Communist). The suffragists answered them in the spirit that if a woman can get out of the Ministry, it may vote. But behind equal rights in politics and the labour program of the suffragettes was the question of prohibition, and they can understand. First, the alcohol was down a hefty portion of the family budget, and secondly, the drunken man fell to family violence and often fought their wives.
Furthermore, politicians understand that now they have to focus more on women voters, what were ready not all. In the end, the amendment, giving America prohibition was adopted even earlier than the one that equates women with men within the electoral processes. Temperance societies, where the suffragettes set the tone, was jubilant. The consequences are well known: the withdrawal of hundreds of millions of dollars in the shadow economy, the emergence in the United States a powerful organized crime, the violence caused by the struggle of criminal clans for territory. That way it will be released, many have realized from the start, but what to do: a woman’s desire – law, especially if the woman is now your voter.
This victory ended the first stage in the development of the feminist movement. However, shortly after gaining voting rights women have found that they pay remains less than men, moreover, in their countries there are many discriminatory rules and laws. For example, in the leading universities of women did not, citing a long tradition of educational institutions, and to begin to work, often need written permission from husband, father or guardian. The second wave of feminism fought not so much for basic rights as against discrimination.
Driver once again was world war II and the rising popularity of leftist ideas around the world, including the United States. But to live in one camp is the feminist movement still could not, there was a division into two distinct wings. Liberal feminists prefer to go through political reforms, radical thought that men won’t share power with women, so revolution is inevitable. That is, if the liberals tried to play games like politics and lobbying, the better the men, the radicals considered it necessary to undermine the Patriarchal, sharpened by the male society, which in itself pushes the woman into the kitchen.
A kind of Bible for the radical feminists of the second wave was released in 1949 voluminous work of Simone de Beauvoir “the Second sex” in which she proves that the path to genuine emancipation is not so much the legal framework, how the culture of Western civilization. What cultural norms do not leave the woman’s choice and hinder her in doing that beyond the limited “family” framework. The book sounds extremely important for modern feminist thought – the differences between men and women are primarily social, biology as deep secondary. Since a purely biological word “gender” in the feminist lexicon is gradually replacing the more complex concept of “gender”.
After ten years, the American journalist Betty Friedan publishes the book “Mystery of femininity”. It is a happy American housewife, Friedan found herself in the “cosy family camp”. In the same year, President John Kennedy signed the first Federal law about equal pay, directly prohibiting discrimination against women in this matter, and begins to reform the entire structure of American gender politics. In 1966, created the national organization for women, the head of which stands itself Friedan. Soon this structure became one of the most influential in the country (of course, within its genre), and Friedan stands the acknowledged leader of the liberals in the feminist current. Under pressure from feminists began to create all sorts of commissions under the government, including the equal opportunities Commission, and they quickly found themselves inundated with complaints about the violation of the Federal law on equal pay. Then the companies that underpay their employees, have begun fining in court.
Parallel to women, a century marked the struggle for equal opportunity, suddenly found that male the bread is not as sweet as it seemed, and the world of men’s competition is cold and cruel. For example, other things being equal a single mother when applying for a job is in a less advantageous position than a young man. So to replace the idea of the struggle for equal opportunity comes the natural idea of “positive discrimination”. Begins the third wave of feminism, an important part of which is Union with the LGBT movement and an attempt to correct language, as a man suppresses a woman already at the lexical level.
In fact, liberal feminism has exhausted its positive program in General before achieving the declared goals. Woman is now much better protected from family violence than in the sixties, her right to equal pay and career development is guaranteed by the legislation of all developed countries. At the same time, will not go away radical feminism, with its obsessive desire to “destroy women’s prison called “modern civilization”.
It is time not so much the empowerment of women, how much restriction of the rights of men. From these ideas comes the modern feminist concept with the requirements in law to establish certain quotas when hiring, give priority to women in promotion and so forth. The very fact that you’re a woman and want to work should give you an advantage over applicants-men.
Trends of recent years in the United States – “politics of identities”, in which the society as it is divided into the faction of “natural interests” (blacks, Latinos, Muslims, LGBT). Women, of course, the largest of these “factions,” all women, from the point of view of feminists, have to think in these categories and participate in politics based on the interests of their gender identity, that is, “women’s coalition”, but otherwise you’re a traitor or a slave misogynous. The fundamental difference between “identity policies” from, for example, the movement of the suffragettes is that it comes from above and is part of the General policy of the Democratic party on the formation of the electorate. Like, if you’re a woman, you are first and foremost a woman, so vote for the Democrats, since the female faction they support, and views on, for example, the economy is secondary.
Because feminist organizations and has played such a prominent role during the recent election campaign in the United States, and therefore took the victory for Donald trump to be so negative (even if we leave out some of his awkward, sometimes frankly unacceptable remarks about women). And since Republicans, for obvious reasons, are now trying to end the “politics of identity” in the place of its highest concentration of colleges and the education system as a whole, the final of the global battle of the feminists with Donald trump as “the embodiment of Patriarchal fascism” we have yet to see.