The entire array of recently declassified CIA documents are still not fully understood due to its enormous size. But it is clear that the abundance of irrelevant information collection there are also some really interesting things. These include the report of 1957 on the American commandos from the population of Ukraine.
Newspaper OPINION wrote that the CIA has declassified a vast array of documents – some 13 million pages for the period from the 40’s to early 70-ies. It is common practice “analysis archives”, when the Agency gets rid of the need to maintain a level of secrecy for documents that are completely irrelevant. And it’s not so much a question of freedom of speech, how much of sound Finance, because the maintenance of necessary level of secrecy requires money – it is cheaper to allow to read than to buy a new lock.
“The most loyal to the Soviet regime, the Americans believed the population of the Crimea and part of Donbass — the industrial regions of Luhansk and Donetsk regions”
In the library, almost everyone can find something interesting: UFO sightings in the Himalayas and data about collisions between U.S. and Soviet submarines fictionalized to assess the power of European armies in comparison with the red army in 1949. By the way, the best army Europe announced never fought Swiss that is simple: the report was written by Professor at Georgetown University, snobbish configured in relation to the addressees of his report, generals and admirals, and therefore have relied on visual hyperbole (“the Swiss army is the strongest”, “Tips comes to Bordeaux for a week,” etc.).
But among the tons of garbage of Frank, of which 99% is routine intelligence activities, come across real masterpieces, causing many questions to their creators. For example, dvuhsotkratnym report of the group of researchers of the same at Georgetown University titled “resistance Factors and special forces. Ukraine”, dated August 1957.
We are talking about the ethnographic analysis of the situation in the Soviet Ukraine, is made “just in case” for special operations command (present-day operational command of SOCOM). When planning the invasion on the territory of the Ukrainian subversive groups, the command had to come from evaluating the potential support of us Marines from the local population, because without the support of local people any subversive group not long survive.
There are also a promising assessment of the objectives, in order to determine the most effective area of getting to sabotage. The whole Ukraine is divided into 12 zones, based on ethnographic, historical, and religious characteristics of the population, and in sum – of-level same potential support. The analysis seems pretty accurate and has not lost relevance until now. The report is accompanied by graphic maps, which highlighted a subregion in which the support of saboteurs will be the maximum. Not hard to guess where it is.
On the contrary, the most loyal to the Soviet regime, the Americans believed the population of the Crimea and part of Donbass – the industrial regions of Luhansk and Donetsk regions.
The Crimea is designated as “zone I”. “In Crimea the population there is little sentiment against the regime, and they are unlikely to help the special forces,” – analysts say. The only support for us Marines may be the Tatars, but during the period of writing they were still in Central Asia. However, the authors suggested that in some mountain areas of the Peninsula could survive by some groups of Tatar “insurgents”, which you can still rely on. Either in Georgetown knew or guessed, but, as it turned out, these groups, although tiny, was really. As wisely stated that Americans can help Ukrainians among the new settlers in the Crimea, the fact is that the population came from Central and Western regions of Ukraine first after the eviction of the Tatars, and then after the transfer of the Crimea of the USSR, when such resettlement began to be encouraged with the aim of Soviet “Ukrainization” of the region.
Zone II – Donbass – allocated in approximate outline of modern DNR and LC, that is, without Northern areas and Mariupol. “The local population consider themselves citizens of the Russian Islands in a Ukrainian sea and identificeret themselves with the Soviet regime,” – said in the report.
As one of the criteria for assessing the loyalty of the population to take the data about activity of Ukrainian nationalist groups during the Second world war. For example, area III, which includes the border with the RSFSR band from Chernihiv to Kharkiv, described as the first, in which there is some support from the civilian population, because there are 40-ies there were several nationalist armed forces, but emphasized “the threat of punishment from the Russians to keep them from rendering aid.” About the same story and in the IV area – Odessa. It is written in the for landing, as the Donbass, but due to migrated from villages predominantly Ukrainian population, which is now ominously referred to as “rogulj”, some hope in reasonable support of the commandos were.
In General, the category of “validating” American scientists say virtually wherever find. So, in the V zone – fertile agricultural lands of the black sea (Kherson, Nikolayev) – the allocated half a million migrants from Western Ukraine, “which brought Ukrainian identity”. It was assumed that the Americans cannot be found among this population, any resistance, on the contrary, will be supported.
In the VI zone dedicated Central Dnieper in the quadrangle Krivoy Rog – Zaporozhye – Dnepropetrovsk – Pavlohrad, in which the conditions for landing named more favorable. With one exception – in large industrial centers is dominated by the “Bolsheviks” (read – Russian-speaking and educated population), but because exactly where need a diversion – in large factories, the saboteurs will not support them.
The first area where the saboteurs can rely on local declared area VII – “the root of Ukraine”, the left-Bank part of Poltava, Chernihiv and Sumy regions, as well as right Bank Kirovohrad oblast and part of Vinnytsia region. Ukrainians in these lands up to 95% of the population, during both world wars there was a marked outbursts of nationalist activity.
Area VIII is the Kiev, Zhytomyr, Cherkasy and Khmelnytsky region. Nationalist and anti-Soviet sentiment here, according to the report, were strong, and the local population could provide “significant support to the special forces.” “The region is the Ukrainian population, which has undergone a small Russian influence”, – says analysts.
In this region a powerful Ukrainian movement was noted even in the years 1917-1921, during the collectivization recorded fierce resistance during the Second world war – a powerful anti-Soviet sentiment, and in the North the poles acted Ukrainian armed rebel groups. The Soviet partisans are supposedly not supported. “It seems that in this region the special forces will have at least moderate assistance”, – noted in the report.
Western Ukraine is divided into four zones. Area IX – Volhynia, which during the war was partially under the physical control of the “Ukrainian rebels”, including large by local standards of town – Kovel, Lutsk, Kostopil and Volodymyrets. After the extermination of Jews, poles and other ethnic people there almost was not. The authors emphasize that remaining in the region of the poles will be configured to the us Marines had a very negative attitude because of the support that may have Ukrainian majority. Georgetown Professor aware of the fact that the anti-Soviet resistance in this area was observed until 1956, and the father of the author of these lines told me that even in 1957 to Vorkuta brought from Volyn people taken, that is, with guns in their hands.
In the area of X recorded in Transcarpathia, where local Ukrainian population has long experience with Russian, but is constantly in conflict with the Hungarians. How to turn the tide in favor of the Marines – not very clear, because the Hungarian population is not associated with “Bolsheviks”. Something similar in the area of XI in Chernivtsi region, but there is a place for the Hungarians, the Romanians, who the local Ukrainians associated with the former administration of the Kingdom of Romania. This, by the way, partly applies to the Transcarpathian Hungarians, who since Medieval times had been the magnates of this land (which cost only possession of the counts of the famous Rakoczy – leaders of the struggle of the Hungarians against the Turks and the Austrians in Transylvania). But the Transcarpathian population is quite flexibly adapted to the changing political situation throughout the XX century (“we were under the Austrians, then to Czechoslovakia, then to Hungary, and now – Ukrainians” – conversation overheard at the railway station of Mukachevo in the mid-80s).
Finally, in zone XII is the most favorable for landing – written the core of Western Ukraine – Lviv, Ternopil and Ivano-frankisk region. American analysts say that in the mountains you can still find remnants of the remnants “of the rebel units,” and it really is a very real prospect for 1957.
But such a simple analysis reveals that the political environment alone does not determine the goals and objectives, the analysts dug deeper. They noted that the agricultural regions of Ukraine, even with a potentially loyal population is not too attractive to subversive actions – there is nothing to blow up. Because in the Lviv region as the objectives noted in the first place, the railway communication from the West to the East, that would be true in the course of total war in Europe (it is strange that analysts have not noticed such an obvious goal, as Veretsky pass, but such errors are excusable for academic science). In Dnipropetrovsk region is also treated as a target only transport corridor “East – West” because the idea to get into the city itself recognized as a mission impossible because of the urban Russian-speaking population. The same story in Kharkov, where considered possible, only to interrupt the communication, connecting the city with Donbass.
In the end, the room for potentially efficient operations of the special forces are mainly concentrated in the Western Ukraine. If this goal is specified in great detail, without photographs, but with detailed knowledge of the terrain. The document does not gives details of a possible landing – a document analysis rather than pure military, although reflected particular equipment, which are necessary to know, for example, in the mountainous regions of the Crimea based on the help of Tatar “resistance groups”.
It is safe to assume that some described in the report factors in 60 years has only worsened, in particular, the growth in the number of immigrants from Western Ukraine to Central and black sea region. In General, ethno-psychological, linguistic and political situation in Ukraine is reflected in the study not only objectively, but also holistically. The detailed accuracy of the Georgetown professors even surprising, but we must understand that among them were a significant stratum of refugee intellectuals. Also affected free access to captured Nazi materials. Playing the role of the CIA in the first half of the 50s still managed to maintain occasional contacts with the UPA detachments* although not as tight as with the “foresters” in Latvia – the deepest area of penetration of foreign intelligence services on the territory of the USSR of that time.
We have to admit that the ensuing thirty years of the Soviet power in the balance of power, virtually nothing changed. Whether the government behaves like something is wrong, whether similar in Ukraine is not quickly changed, and the alignment was fixed for centuries.
* Organization in respect of which the court accepted entered into legal force decision on liquidation or ban the activities on the grounds stipulated by the Federal law “On countering extremist activity”