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Tuesday, February 20, 2018

What are the main achievements of Russian science in 2016 year


The scientific community of Russia is trying to become closer to the common people, combining the latest developments with the popularization of itself. This is a new trend for the Russian Federation, although it performed well during the Soviet era. But all this takes place not at the expense of international academic recognition – in this sense, the Russian scientist in 2016 was something to brag about.

In summing up the turbulent, but invisible to most life science laboratories often remains out of focus of public attention. Many scientists are working without fanfare, and their breakthroughs are often comprehensible only to a narrow circle of specialists. But it’s something in the distant or near future and not consciously noticing it will benefit the people of post-industrial society. Your contribution to the progress in the past year made by Russian scientists. What they remember the world?

“The ACS award is the most prestigious and celebrates the outstanding achievements of international significance, but the scientist from Russia gets her first”

According to the modern requirements of the Ministry of education, effectiveness of teaching staff in Russia is determined by their level of fame publication in international journals, ratings, competitions with international recognition and should start.

What could be more significant table of chemical elements of D. I. Mendeleev? If the names of Nobel laureates in five to ten years can remember only experts in their respective fields, to get into the periodic system is forever, it will be everywhere. In 2016, the honor to receive a personal element were awarded the Russian nuclear physicist Yuri Oganessian. National school of nuclear scientists – the heirs of academician Flerov from Dubna once again confirmed its global level, in 2005 together with scientists from the United States by opening solid inert gas with a half-life of the nuclide in 1 MS. Earlier Hovhannisyan and his colleagues made a major contribution to the discovery of the transuranium elements – rezerforda (No. 104), Dubna (No. 105), cyborgy (No. 106), bore (No. 107), and in November of 2016 the international Union of pure and applied chemistry assigned to element number 118 name “ohanneson”.

Optimism and making creative plans of the Russian nuclear scientists, backed by serious infrastructure investment. In March in Dubna was held the ceremony of laying the first stone in the Foundation of promising accelerator complex to mark the start of works on construction of the Russian Collider NICА. The first launch of the Collider is planned in 2019, it will help to reveal the principles underlying fundamental forces and phenomena in the Universe: black holes, dark matter, dark energy, wormhole. Despite the Russian localization of the installations, the project involved experts from 24 countries. Preserved and unified community of physicists of the Soviet school – Collider built by the representatives of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. By the way, according to the staff of Dubna, up to 90% of Ukrainian experts, distantsirovaniya from the current policy of official Kiev continues to work with colleagues from the Russian Federation.

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Russian inventors Valery Perevalov and Leonid Primak has shown a system that uses wind and solar energy at the same time, increasing effektivnosti be noted that the Dubna Collider is not the only fundamental a mega-project in Russia. Simultaneously, work on the Russian-Italian research fusion reactor Ignitor in Troitsk neutron reactor PIK in Gatchina and other infrastructure complexes. So the reason to expect further achievements in the heirs of the Kurchatov available.

The success of the local chemists also gained international recognition. So, in August in Philadelphia the head of Laboratory of cluster catalysis, St. Petersburg state University, corresponding member of the RAS Professor Valentin Ananikov was awarded the prize of the American chemical society (ACS). This award is the most prestigious and celebrates the outstanding achievements of international significance, but the scientist from Russia gets her first. Team work Ananikov lie in the field of the transformation of the catalysts it was shown that the catalyst transitions from a molecular state in a clustered form, and then transformed into a nanoparticle, wherein the parallel opposite reaction, a “cocktail” of active centers. The problem of the recovery of expensive catalysts is one of the most important in modern chemical synthesis, and the ACS award was another in a series of awards received by the Russian chemist. Previously, he was awarded the prize. Liebig, the prize named after A. A. Balandin, Russian Federation State prize for young scientists, and others.

There were rumors about the chances for a Nobel prize (repeatedly fell into the list of candidates) another Russian chemist, academician Anatoly Buchachenko. On account of his discovery of the magnetic isotope effect, Radioengineering magnetic isotope effect, spin catalysis, microwave radiation in chemical reactions. But, as you can see, “the Nobel prize” decided not to give not only a great Mendeleev.

In the past year was recognized by the scientific world and the success of Russian biologists. A graduate of Moscow state University, employee of the RAS Anatoly Zaitsev was awarded the prestigious international award of the American society for cell biology (ascb is no) for studies of how the cell organizes the division process of chromosomes and their differences to daughter cells, corrects errors of distribution of genetic information. The practical result of these works may be new methods of dealing with cancer and the development of promising medicines.

Another resonance, albeit not award-winning research was the work of biologists from the MIPT (Phystech generally becomes the flagship of the national biology) in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease. Ian Ivanenkov and mark Veselov investigated molecules AVN-211 and AVN-322, capable of blocking receptor 5-HT6R nerve cells. He is a promising target for drugs developed against Alzheimer’s disease. Experiments on cultures of human cells, mice, rats, monkeys showed the effectiveness of these compounds.

Public resonance bio-medical projects it is also worth noting the fight against fever Ebola and Zeke. Against the first in Russia have developed two vaccines have already started their commercial production. Against zika virus in Institue of Virology, Ministry of health the development of a vaccine is still underway, but in the Central research Institute of epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor already established method of rapid diagnosis of the disease.

If we consider the natural scientists in General, from the point of view of scientometrics, not to mention the past in December the awarding ceremony of Russian scientists, was awarded the prize from the creators of the database Web of Science. The 14 prize was awarded to Russian scientists in the categories physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, life science and Earth science. According to the statistical calculations of publishability is the most cited in the world scientific community, Russian scientists. The winner in the category “highly cited scientific magazine” was the magazine “Successes of chemistry” of RAS. The most highly cited University in 2016 to become a national research University “Higher school of economy”, Siberian Federal University and the most highly cited research Institute – Institute of high energy physics, Special astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences and Instit theoretical physics. Landau wounds.

Thus, the run continues to be one of the pillars of fundamental science in Russia. Not to mention that the Academy was going through in 2016, not the easy times – the ongoing reform, mergers of institutions outstanding relationships with FANO continue to bedevil the national science. There is still no established single assessment of the results of the initiated reforms, are polar views on the implications of perestroika. Everything else, at the end of 2016, a scandal erupted when President Vladimir Putin raised the question of whether officials among academics, and a number of civil servants, combining their high positions with the Ministry of science, was eventually dismissed. In parallel, most ran in the last elections there was a reduction in the average age of academics for three years. What will all these changes we will see in the near future.

In General, from the point of view of interaction between government and the scientific world in Russia there is now a very interesting process. So, had adopted a Strategy for scientific and technological development of the country till 2035. In her analysis of science development in Russia after 1991, it is recognized that to function it will have in conditions of protracted economic crisis and sanctions pressure – and, on this basis, the proposed options. While there is a modern, low efficiency of introduction of scientific developments into practice, the lack of results in the form of existing international patents. In the result, a system of special measures (for example,”promoting investment in the commercial sector in research and development, strengthen strategic research and innovation practices of Russian companies”) and pays special attention to the staffing issue (“Support the early involvement of children and young people in research within the so-called “civil science”, “student Involvement – students, postgraduates, doctoral students to courses and areas of specialization related to the scientific issues” and so on).

Overall, the strategy focuses the attention of researchers on the areas in which the state intends to obtain significant economic effects. They are also consistent with the previously developed National technology initiative (NTI). Among them, the development of unmanned vehicles, biotechnology for a sharp rise in the duration of active and healthy life, neyrotekhnologii for interpersonal and man-machine communications, intellectualization and distributed nature of energy, the latest security system. In General it is quite consistent and global trends.

Of particular interest is the orientation to “support the formation of at least 4-5 large modern globally competitive regions, occupying leading position in the field of research and development in the world.” In this sense, it is easy to predict the impending competition between the classical science cities and younger brothers format SKOLKOVO or Kazan “Innopolis”.

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A self-taught mechanic Nikolay Rodin designed a snow machine spare parts, domestic automobilistici way, active attempts to find optimal formats of scientific and innovative development of Russia is obvious. And the main thing now –to observe the delicate balance between maintaining the classical academic science and new mechanisms of practice-oriented formats.

Kind of an interesting direction is scientific progress related to the work of the defense industry and defense projects. Based on open publications in mass media, specialized publications, reports from zones of armed conflict nested in recent years a lot of money is really given the result.

Another important trend is the reversal of the Russian scientific community towards the “going to the people”. Scientists are more and more do not want to look mysterious beings in white coats, “satisfy your curiosity for the state account”. The second reason – the desire to overcome extreme level of anti-scientific mystical thinking in society, has not been overcome after the crisis of the 90s. Now in many cities and universities held events Science Slam, when in the stand-up format and casual (often to the club) the atmosphere of popular scientists talk about their research. The geography of movements of lecturers well-known popularizers of science (for example, a fighter against pseudoscience Alexander Panchina) covers and SKOLKOVO respectable international forums, and rock bars in the cities of the scale of Krasnodar. Screens channel “Science 2.0” microbiologist from MSU Andrei Shestakov in the film series is available explains the role of bacteria in our lives. And in November in the capital hosted the first “Gathering of the Enlightenment”, which brought together the organizers of scientific events, speakers, moderators, scientific journalists, and bloggers, for the popularization of science.

I would like to mention, not so serious, but socially important for the Russian scientific world fact – influential journal Nature included in the top 10 of men of science 2016 the Russian-Kazakhstan the founder of the Sci-Hub biologist Alexander Elbakyan. This project opens free access to 46 million scientific articles, for which their holders actually require users money. From the point of view of jurisprudence, the project is a pirate website and regularly persecuted from the outside, for example, the United States. From the point of view of many representatives of the international scientific community, the realization of the right to freedom of information and research. Judging by the rising popularity of Sci-Hub even in the Western countries where to pay for access to articles more than usual, the second point of view surely wins the “popular vote”.

In General, the results in 2016 for the academic environment can be summed as positive. It is not the duty of a turnover and not a cliché: it is very difficult to work in conditions of economic crisis and shortage of resources, while current reforms may not always imply an obvious result. But the process is. And “top” and “bottom”.

Top – the state actively carries out academic policy, stating your order for the necessary technology. Seeking ways of stimulating research teams who are ready to create a new high-tech product. Trying to attract businesses in order to develop such a product, instead of purchasing abroad.

Bottom – by a sharp increase in the uptake of science in society; from new year’s “science show” for younger children and robotic laboratories for elders, to popular science lectures and “battle of minds” for their parents. Thus there is not only quantitative but also qualitative growth of scientific and educational movement in the country popularizers of science together, launching new projects.

I want to believe that the new 2017 implementers of these paths will move together and play for the same team.

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