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Thursday, February 15, 2018

How to change Russian laws with the New year: innovation on the shelves


The state annually gives the Russians the coming into force on January 1 and immediately afterwards new laws and regulations, new rules and restrictions. By tradition, we decided to dig.

Just be warned: gifts that make a fairy tale come true, was not found. But a potentially useful kind available. And there are those that toss without thinking, but the laws do not succeed. So, you will have to get used to.


photo: pixabay.com

A gift to seniors: 5 thousand rubles once and for all, and then 5%, but only some

In January 2017 the Russian pensioners will receive 5 thousand rubles – this is a one-time payout was invented by the government as compensation for secondarily of pensions in 2016. From the information posted on the official website of the Pension Fund, that money can count all citizens who have reached retirement age to December 31, permanently residing on the territory of the Russian Federation – working pensioners and the unemployed, and recipients of military pensions, and equated categories. So if the retirement age will come to you 2 January of 2017, for example – to pay for hope. If you are a Russian, but live abroad permanently too.

“Delivery period” as it is called PF, is set to 28 Jan. And the payment will go the same way as regular pension: by mail, home delivery or credited to the card. This does not happen necessarily at the same time to receive a pension in January: those who are the January retirement benefit will be paid until December 31, 5 thousand will receive separately after the New year. If, for example, the postman brought the extra payment on the house, and the pensioner left for bread and get its failed, no need to worry: the charge will bring then together with the regular pension.

To issue any additional documents to obtain 5 thousand is required. Taxes the payment is not taxed. And, importantly for those pensioners who receive from regional and Federal authorities of different sorts of subsidies and copayment, depending on income level when determining eligibility for these subsidies and payments 5 thousand not accounted for. And hold on decisions of the courts that amount to be made will not…

With regard to insurance, pensions and some benefits – they index February 1 has been made in 2016, the inflation rate, the money is in the budget. The government forecast of 5.8% growth in prices over the year may be overstated: according to Rosstat for December 19, the consumer price index since the beginning of the year amounted to 5.3%.

Reminder: 2016 insurance pensions in Russia will index only retirees! Working as if they are frozen, and after dismissal are recalculated based on all past during the operation of indexation.

Another relatively good news: entered into force a law that will allow insured for the time during which the citizen was wrongly prosecuted, dismissed from work or posts in connection with the remand, and then rehabilitated. Innovation applies to the situation that had arisen after November 2015. From of insurance depends on the origin of the right to a pension and its amount.

And now for the less pleasant things… the Moratorium on formation of accumulative pensions extended. Insurance premiums (6% of payroll for those who were born after 1967) that should go to savings accounts of citizens will go to the pension Fund for financing pension insurance. If in 2014-2016 pension accumulation frozen annually, now it is done directly in 2017-2019. This fundamental decision about what will happen to the funded pensions, and is not accepted.

From January 1, comes into force and the law, freezing the size “the parent capital” by 2020. Indexation depending on the inflation level reached will not. The amount of this benefit is not changing in 2015: 453 thousand rubles 20 kopecks.

The present owners: new rules of registration of real estate

From 1 January enter into force a new law “On state registration of real estate” adopted in 2015. It provides for the establishment of the Unified state register of real estate (egrn), which will be carried out by Rosreestr in electronic form. This database will include the land registry, the registry rights the registry of boundaries, cadastral maps, all the books of account documents.

The advantages of the innovation are described in detail on the official website of Rosreestr.

First, now cadastre and registration of rights – different procedures, but often citizens have both at the same time. The egrn will immediately submit a statement on the cadastral accounting and registration in a single window, which will save time. In addition to pass the documents can be in any office, no matter where is your object in Moscow or Samara. The service can be obtained online, from the comfort of home. And if there is time, the documents needed from the egrn will be delivered to any convenient place and time with the courier (for a fee).

Second, the paperwork will be easier and faster. Within 10 days do and cadastral registration, and the right register. If you need something one for 7 days will assist, and 5 days cadastral registration. A statement about your property you can not get for 5 days now, and 3. By order of the Ministry of economic development has approved prices for the services of the egrn like the value of statements about an object on paper for individuals, is 750 rubles, and in electronic form – 300 rubles.

The egrn, say in the building, ensures secure data storage, “minimizes the risk of fraud and reduce for citizens and entrepreneurs, the risk of transactions in the real estate market.” By the way, certificates of title that were issued upon registration of the property, thing of the past : instead, and cadastral registration, and the transfer of ownership will be confirmed by the extract from the egrn and check the contract or transaction is a special registration inscription on the document about the deal.

Note: if you have submitted documents on registration and cadastral registration until 31 December 2016, it will all be done let in the New year, but under the old rules…

It looks attractive and modern. But there are serious concerns about the willingness of the authorities to such radical changes. The law “On state registration of real estate” was named in the state Duma monitoring among those to whom, before mid-December has not taken all necessary legal regulations or is not completed the organizational-technical work. Until recently, discussed the option of postponing entry into force until 1 July 2017, but in the end the government decided not to do it. Meanwhile, representatives of some regions in the state Duma claim complete information on the places to the new database did not manage to enter, and at first can cause problems.

Moreover, in the most decisive moment in is responsible for the implementation of the law offices happened reshuffle. The head of Rosreestr Igor Vasiliev in July, an emergency order was sent to the acting Governor of Kirov oblast after the arrest of Nikita Belykh, as the new head of service appeared only in October (Victoria Abramchenko). In mid-November arrested the Minister of economic development Alexei Ulyukayev, and the name of the new head of the Agency (Maxim.) became known only on November 30. And dated 21 December, the letter from the head of the Federal chamber of notaries States that the notaries will not be able to fulfill the requirements on the transfer egrn information on the issuance of the certificate of inheritance, because the current legislation on notaries considers this information to the number of protected notary’s secret…

There are other innovations related to real estate. Taxpayers-natural persons from 1 January there is a new obligation: to themselves to inform the tax authorities that they have unrecorded government property and vehicles. The signal that it’s time to “give up” on the lack of notification of tax assessment on this property during possession. For failure to fulfill promised a substantial penalty (20% of the unpaid tax).

With the New year comes into force and adopted in the summer of 2016 the law that conveys the cadastral valuation of the hands of private companies, which was a lot of criticism, in the hands of the state budgetary institutions.

And if we talk about inventory, then from 1 January 2017 undoes one of the most important provisions of the “dacha Amnesty”: the basis for the production on state cadastral registration of buildings in the suburban area becomes a technical plan for the home, garden or garage, rather than a simple Declaration. The technical plan is the cadastral engineer or employee of BTI, the price issue – at least 7-8 thousand rubles, and it depends on the square of the structure. According to the authors of the law, it should close the loophole for fraud, understatement of the building area in order to reduce the amount of tax. As a result of “dacha Amnesty”, introduced by law in 2006 and seems to be ending in March 2018, it remains, in essence, be simplified, without surveying and cadastral engineers call, registration of the land.

Gift to motorists: electronic insurance policy, and mandatory GLONASS

No Christmas holiday is complete without news for car owners. This is no exception.

From 1 January 2017 the insurance companies dealing with insurance, not just entitled, but obliged by law to enter into an electronic contract with each of them requesting.

A number of insurers have begun sales of the so-called e-insurance from July 2015, and some experience has already been accumulated. The procedure looks like.

On the website of the company should enter the necessary data, after verification to the password on the mobile phone and to register in the personal Cabinet. Then fill in the application for the contract, to calculation of the insurance premium (the cost is the same as with a normal registration of the policy in the company’s office), and pay the policy on the website by using a credit card. Data validation specified in the application, is performed via automated information system (AIS), the Russian Union of insurers, professional associations, which are 69 players in the market.

The policy will be sent by e-mail. In principle, to carry it with you like is not necessary, because access to AIS should theoretically be employees of the interior Ministry, but who knows what’s practical, and in any case, at least at first, insurers are advised to take the printout of the policy itself.

The Bank of Russia has developed strict requirements for the smooth functioning of the websites of insurance companies, so if it is impossible due to technical reasons to conclude, e-Polis with a specific company client with his consent is redirected to the site another insurer that will be offered by random selection.

A few months ago it was assumed that the New year will come into force a law which will change the rules of compensation for material damage insurance, namely: replace primarily cash compensation (the maximum amount is 400 thousand) mainly natural repair crippled car. But the Ministry of Finance and the Central Bank have not had time to finalize the details of disputed and causing many issues to the scheme, and now this part of the reform of the insurance it will work until March 1 at least, this date is now called…

An unpleasant surprise for many Russians, especially those living in the Primorye and Kaliningrad: from 1 January 2017 all cars imported into the territory of the Eurasian economic Union must be equipped with system “ERA-GLONASS”.

The EEU countries – Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. And “ERA-GLONASS” – the Federal system of emergency response in case of accidents, which allows you to get through the GLONASS satellites information about accidents and other incidents on the road, process it and transmit emergency services. To connect to this system on the imported car, you need to install a special device, which costs about $ 100. But the device still need to be certified for compliance with domestic standards, and laboratories that make it, in Russia only two. The vehicle must pass a crash test: frontal, side and rollover…

Big car manufacturers will install the device, because the cost of import of enjoying the massive demand cars are not great. Besides large companies, experts say, will be able to use some left for them loopholes in the law. But on the private import of used cars from abroad raises the cross – that happens. Explanations of the Federal customs service do not leave any doubt on this score: they argued that to obtain a technical certificate for imported for personal use the car without the “ERA-GLONASS” and register it will fail.

The gift in conflict with the law: 900 convicts can avoid colony

From 1 January 2017 in cases when a citizen is sentenced to imprisonment for committing a crime of minor or medium gravity, or grave, but for the first time, the court can taking into account specific circumstances to replace the forced labor colony for a period from 2 months to 5 years.

Work have where I will say – maybe at the other end of the country, and of salaries the state will hold from 5 to 20%. If the sentence is 5 years imprisonment, for such indulgence should not count. Minors, the disabled first and second groups, pregnant women, women with children under 3 years, pensioners and military personnel forced the schedule is prohibited.

Forced labor is spelled out in articles 188 of the criminal code. Among them, for example, article 106 (“Murder by mother of the newborn child”), 107 (“Murder committed in the heat of passion”), 108 (“the Murder committed by exceeding the limits of necessary defense…”), 109 (“Causing death on imprudence”), 110 (“Incitement to suicide”)…

Internal regulations in correctional centers, where they will have to live condemned to a new kind of punishment, and the order of supervision of their inhabitants have developed the Ministry of justice.

It is, in fact, comes to hostels with a strict regime: individual sleeping place and bed linen are state-owned, clothing, shoes and food, and utilities at its own expense, that is at the expense of earnings. Rise at 6: 00 am, lights out at 22.00. Work from 7.45 to 18.00. Paid leave – 18 days per year. For a serious breach of the regime is under lock and key for 15 days. For refusing to execute the court decision on forced labour – colony.

Have served a third term may be allowed to live with his family in a rented or your own apartment in the city where is located the correctional center.

A new form of punishment, which immediately called “analogue of the Soviet chemistry”, prescribed in the Penal code in December 2011, started during President Medvedev’s liberalization of the criminal legislation. Initially it was planned to introduce it from 1 January 2014, building 30 correctional centres. President Putin liberalization soul is not very warming centers are not built, and the date of entry into force was postponed for another three years. But now the courts can not, even if I want to replace the massively imprisonment for forced labor: 5 years in Russia has appeared only 4 of the correctional centre (in the Tyumen and Tambov regions, Primorsky and Stavropol region) with a total capacity of 900 people.

However, recently the Ministry of justice has developed a bill that will allow us to serve forced labor in state-owned companies and state corporations, while living in their dormitories. But in the Duma it is still not made.

A gift to the military: a short-term contract

At the beginning of 2017 will enter into force adopted in December a law that would allow the defense Ministry to conclude with the recruits, or citizens staying in a stock, the so-called “short” contracts (from 1 month to 1 year). In the state Duma during the discussion of this proposal of the government is most often remembered Syria.

Under the current rules the first contract on passage of military service for privates, sergeants and petty officers may be 2-3 years, but if we are talking about commissioned officers, warrant officers or officers – 5 years.

For a shorter period, from 6 months to a year, are allowed to sign contracts only under extraordinary circumstances like natural disasters, the introduction of a state of emergency and the need to “restore constitutional order”, that is, the mass armed uprisings, and to participate in activities that “maintain or restore international peace and security” (e.g., peacekeeping operations).

“In connection with a change in the military-political situation, intensification of activities of international terrorist and extremist organizations,” was said in the explanatory note to the defense Ministry prepared the draft law, is required to increase the mobility of troops and the recruitment of soldiers “to promptly solve short-term, but important tasks”, including outside the Russian Federation.

And that’s the reason the short-term contract in the law “On military duty and military service” augmented “to suppress international terrorist activities outside the Russian Federation” and the mention of a minimum short term contract was removed altogether. Hence, it is possible to conclude, at least for a month or two.

The new rules will allow at the same time to address the issue of recruitment of crews for participation in the long and continuous campaigns of the ships and submarines of the Russian Navy. The fact that now over 30% of the personnel of the crews, recruits, changed every six months. If you consider that about 2 months is spent in the direct preparation of a warship to the long March, life often expires either during the training or during the hike. In such cases it will be possible to conclude short-term contracts for the time required to return home.

According to the defense Ministry, about 20% applied for the contracts of Russians would like to conclude them in a short time, to participate in a particular operation or event.

Gift retailers and consumers: to SIC CPS on businesses will become more difficult

With the New year start to operate new rules for the CPS unscheduled inspections on complaints of consumers in organizations and businesses, including shops, restaurants, cafes and hairdressers.

The officials of the Ministry, monitors the quality of services delivered to citizens, had the right to initiate an unscheduled inspection, after receiving a citizen complaint. From January 1, this test will start only in case of compliance by the appellant of certain conditions.

First, before you write to the CPS, you must first contact the seller, the manufacturer or the manufacturer of the product or service that the consumer seem worthless. Secondly, wait for his reaction. And if the reaction is negative (complaint not upheld or even sent to the garbage), with a clear conscience to write to officials, saying in a letter about the sad experience of communication with the offender (receipt of mail and copies to make is not required).

Anonymous complaints are categorically not welcome. If you write to the CPS over the Internet, this should be done from a computer or gadget that allows you to identify. If you send a letter in the mail – it is necessary to provide information that will allow officials to identify you.

Organization dedicated to protecting the rights of consumers believe that the new rules restrict the ability of citizens to defend their interests. But in this case we are not dealing with the manifestation of the evil will of the CPS, and an attempt to fulfill adopted in the summer of 2016 the law that changed the General rules for conducting inspections of the various organizations and individual entrepreneurs, Supervisory and regulatory authorities. Some of the provisions of this act are designed to facilitate the lives of business. For example, it is assumed obligatory informing of businessmen and leaders of organizations, including via the Internet, about all mandatory requirements, compliance with which the government intends to control. If received from the citizens the complaint about a minor breach, the Supervisory authorities may be limited to a warning, and an unscheduled inspection not do it at all.

However, not all cat (entrepreneur) carnival. In some cases, even an anonymous letter to the consumer directed without complying with the above formalities may have consequences:

The CPS may set forth therein the facts to initiate an administrative investigation, and during it do the same thing, which is usually done during unscheduled inspections. That is, to request the necessary information to inspect the premises, to take samples and samples, assign the examination, arrest of commodities, and even to temporarily prohibit activities if we are talking about a direct threat to the life or health of people or the epidemic…

And the same law gives the regulatory authorities and new rights. For example, officials will be able to do a test purchase via the Internet, and to check the quality of goods sold. And the authorities have the right to develop special “indicators of risk of violation of mandatory requirements,” and if the monitoring reveals that any businessman in his work dangerously close to the maximum value of these indicators, it is possible to send an unscheduled inspection.

Gift officials and officials: the increase in the retirement age begins

For officials of Federal, regional and municipal (only for them!) The new year means the beginning of the reform to raise the retirement age for the calculation of insurance old-age pension: in 2017 it will be for female officials and 55 years and 6 months 60 years and 6 months for men. The result is a smooth subsequent increase by 2032 this figure is expected to reach the level of 63 years for women and 65 for men. If the officer wants to obtain a pension insurance as a human, with 55 and 60 years for women and men respectively, it is enough to resign from civil service, having reached this age.

Gradually starts to rise and the experience of municipal and public service, giving the officer the right to pension for long service (15 years 6 months in 2017 up to 20 years to 2026). But these changes do not affect those who worked to “seniority” under the old rules until 1 January 2017.

At the same time from 60 to 65 years of age increases the age limit of stay on civil service.

Tightened the conditions for receiving enhanced pensions for deputies of the state Duma and members of Federation Council: it used to Supplement pension insurance in the amount of 55% of the monthly remuneration of the Deputy relied to those who have served in the Parliament from 1 to 3 years, and now will need to serve 5 years. The period of eligibility for additional payment of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the MP, increased from 3 to 10 years. Monthly monetary compensation of deputies and Senator the same as the Minister – this is a basic (and smaller) part of the salary. It is established by presidential decree and is now about 80 thousand rubles a month. Hence, the maximum surcharge to pension will be about 60 thousand rubles per month.

The gift offended: submit the claim to the Ministry of Finance is now possible from the comfort of home

Comes into force a law designed to create within the country a legal protection that until now could be found only in the European court of human rights.

The ECHR decision according to some complaints received from the Russians, stated the presence of systemic problems: the excessively long execution issued in favor of applicants of the decisions of national courts, if those decisions provide for the execution of government commitments in monetary or non-monetary form

Authorities and local self-government, which the court ordered to pay benefits, salaries, to restore pension to issue a certificate to respond to the appeal of citizens, sometimes pulling the bagpipes over the years. Especially long time to wait from the Ministry of Finance and other financial bodies cash payments. Citizens lose hope to find justice at home, write to the ECHR, there is Russia an award for failure to execute the decisions of the national court within a reasonable time, and in the currency… Now to the ECHR on the examination of about 500 complaints of such content.

And now to submit claims to the authorities and officials to demand compensation for nonperformance within a reasonable time by a court decision on the restoration of the property or non-property rights will be in Russia.

According to the Ministry, the implementation of the law will require an additional approximately 390 million rubles a year from the budgets of all levels – for the payment of those compensations. To sue such content shall be allowed not later than 6 months after the expiration of which he took the decision to restore the rights of the court.

However, the concept of “reasonable time” in relation to proceedings and enforcement proceedings is not defined in any law of the Russian Federation. In each case, the question of what is a reasonable period (month, year, week), court decides…

Initiating the Ministry of Finance, the claim will be on the Internet: from January 1, expands the use of electronic documents in activity of the Russian courts.

The statement of claim, just a statement, the complaint, representation and other documents can be filed in court or on paper, or in electronic form, including in the form of electronic document certified by electronic signature – unless of course allows the technical equipment of the court. In electronic form may be made and the court’s decision, but in these cases must be and paper copy. Only on paper will continue to shape decisions in civil, commercial and criminal cases related to any secret protected by law, affecting the security of the state, as well as in criminal cases about crimes against sexual inviolability and sexual freedom of the person. All these processes usually take place behind closed doors.

With the development of electronic document circulation in the courts there are problems: for example, an electronic signature while in the presence of very few Russians. But it will certainly make the lawyers that will send documents in electronic form on behalf of their clients.

The serving order to the Supreme court documents in electronic form can be found on the website of that body.

A gift to residents: iminspector will monitor the rates for a block of flats

That’s new will appear or will not appear after 1 January 2017 in one of the most archaic sectors of the Russian economy with incredibly confusing regulation – utilities – you can read our article “Unpleasant gifts of utilities.”

But in late December, Parliament adopted two laws which will come into force immediately after the Christmas holidays.

As you know, part of the fees for maintenance of the dwelling from 1 January included the costs of cold water, hot water, electric energy, thermal energy consumed in the maintenance of common property in an apartment house, and total expenditure on sewage disposal in the apartment building.

This required the solution of a question of who will test and control the validity of the norms of resource consumption for a block of flats and tariffs, which according to regional authorities on the basis of the methodology developed by the Federal centre.

The government (minvu) suggested that housing inspectors in the regions and the Duma majority supported the idea. Although the discussion many members expressed doubt that the appointed governors and obeying them iinspector, no matter how professional and prepared they may be, can be objective and control their bosses. In any case, Vesme complaints about rates for ONE – now to him…

Another “municipal” law, passed at the end of the year, for major repairs. Informed tenants, who decided to go from a “common pot” and to raise funds to repair his home in a special account, which could actually make it through 2 years. Regions the law has allowed to reduce term of its laws, but by the spring of 2016, when the question of the constitutionality of the procedure of payment for major repairs was discussed in the constitutional court, of the 85 subjects of the Federation took advantage of this right only 38. For example, in Moscow time – out 3 months, in Kabardino-Balkaria – 6 months, in Bashkortostan and St. Petersburg – 1 year.

Now the maximum period out of the “common pot” for all regions is reduced to 1 year. The same law allowed rapid inclusion in the program of repair of the house affected by floods, fires, and floods, and repair them in an expedited manner.

A gift to the debtors: the more manifold will not tell anyone about your problems

Last winter one after another came the news of the atrocities collectors, visibally debts of the citizens by all available means up to intimidation, use of force, arson and the Russian authorities decided to impose strict limits for this activity, demand in a crisis. The relevant law adopted in the summer before the Duma elections. From 1 January it comes into force.

General rules for debt collection and accepted methods of influence on debtors: it is impossible to threaten them with violence, to destroy or damage their property, to put psychological pressure and to humiliate, to post information about them and their overdue debts on the Internet or reported to work… Call the debtor the collector has no right from 22 to 8 hours on weekdays, and from 20 to 9 hours on weekends and holidays. And generally call more than once a day, two times a week and 8 times a month is impossible. And personally, you can’t see him more than once a week.

To collection activities are not allowed citizens with an unexpunged or outstanding conviction for certain crimes. Hire living abroad in order to terrorize the Russian citizen-the debtor via telephone, Internet or SMS-messages is also prohibited.

All organizations dealing with breaking the debts and meet the new requirements should be entered in a special register, deletion from it means a ban on this activity. Collection agencies three years will have to keep a record of all conversations with debtors, all text and other messages sent to them, of all paper documents and maintain a list of employees having access to information about debtors.

In addition, to ease the burden of debt for people who are in the grip of microfinance organizations of citizens from January 1, 2017 accrued interest and other fees (excluding fines for penalty) microloans of up to one year can not exceed three times the size of the loan. Existing before the rules allowed you to take interest and 4 times the amount of debt. The new restrictions apply only to those microloans, which will be taken after 1 January 2017.

Microloans usually take people who are not available other way of getting a loan, they are easy to design and sky-high height of interest rates. The maximum amount that can be obtained in these conditions in Russia – 1 million rubles…

But it will actually be after the New year – hard to say. The fact that the decree that determines what the authorities will regulate the work of collectors (DOJ) and lead them to the registry (FSSP), President Putin, for whatever reasons, was signed only on 15 December, although actually it was required by October. Hence, the Ministry of justice and the Federal bailiff service left two weeks for approval of its regulations – the rules, orders and regulations, and roster. And collection agencies – to bring their documents into compliance with the new requirements, banks and microfinance institutions – an amendment of loan agreements… the maintenance of the register of the Federal bailiff service need money and more staff, but the budget has been adopted, therefore, the President instructed to allocate funds for this purpose during the adjustment budget for 2017-2019. Correction, if you will, not early spring.

According to the Bank, for the year overdue debt of individuals to banks increased and amounts to almost 900 billion.

A gift to tourists: the new rules of assistance and support

Shall take effect adopted in March 2016, the law is aimed at improving the rules of tourist activities, and a thick package of secondary legislation to it. The essential terms of the contract (the mandatory, the violation of which is fraught with sanctions), for example, attributed the results at least 24 hours before travel e-ticket “there-back”, and the design of a document about booking a hotel. The tour operator is obliged to provide the carrier guarantees payment of the contract.

The Fund personal liability of the tour operators in the sphere of tourism, the fee for them is 1% of the total price of the tourist product over the last year. From the Fund will compensate the real damage suffered by the visitors as a result of default by tour operator of obligations under the contract. A written claim for reimbursement of the actual damage will be able to show the tourists themselves or their representatives. To receive payment will be if a tour operator ceased operations. If accumulated personal Fund of funds insufficient to pay all the affected tourists, it would be paid in proportion to the amounts of money specified in the requirements to the size of accumulated assets in the Fund.

The decision on payment (denial) may be appealed to the Association of tour operators.

Urgently to evacuate tourists from the country, where they rested, in the event of bankruptcy of the tour operator, will be at the expense of special reserve Fund associations of tour operators.

With the New year come into force and some provisions of the law passed in 2013 in connection with preparation for carrying out in Russia of world football championship-2018. In those 11 regions, where will be held, at sports competitions (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Saransk, Kaliningrad, Rostov-on-don, Sochi, Samara, Nizhny Novgorod, Volgograd, Kazan) all hotels and other accommodation visitors, as well as beaches and ski slopes will be able to work only in the presence of the certificate on assignment of category. The assessment will be handled by accredited organizations. By order of the Ministry of culture (the Ministry is responsible for tourism) identified 6 categories of class hotels depending on the number of stars: low – “no stars” to “five stars”.

See photo essay on the topic:

Unique archival footage of the New year: from tsarist times to the Soviet Union

29 photos

New year 2017 . Chronicle of events
source

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