How many in Russia, industries that are in crisis without any state support show growth? It turns out that there are. For example, online trade, which will not strangle, not kill. By the end of 2016, this market will grow to a trillion rubles of the turnover of the traditional Commerce will total 3-3. 5%. To the best international standards is still far away, and thus the growth prospects are huge. Especially if vodka and whiskey will return to the Internet.
photo: Natalia Muslinkina
More and more people prefer online shopping. If you believe the various relevant research (they hold the Association of Internet trade — AKITA, Institute of modern media, the national Association of distance selling), 55-60% of Russians at least once in my life bought anything in the Global network. It is estimated that 51% of online shoppers made a Bank account specifically to pay for virtual shopping abroad.
Now no one wants to stand in queues when you can pay a couple of clicks and even choose a convenient delivery time. Some stores offer their customers the possibility not only to buy goods online but also to bargain for them with vendors, assigning a price.
Consumers looking for online are not only low price but also freedom of choice, sorted by dozens of criteria, reviews on products and shop, the ability to communicate with other buyers and experts, especially in the case of the search high-tech things. In addition, many shops, not just large platform for placing product offerings, have already begun to do convenient applications for mobile gadgets.
Nothing surprising in this — has grown a new, digital generation, for which there are no boundaries. These young people almost do not use the computer for their entire Internet in the smartphone.
All these factors together, despite the difficult economic situation, give a good increase in online trade.
In 2013 it amounted to 544 billion rubles, in 2014‑m — 713 billion, in 2015‑m — 760 billion, in 2016 will reach 900 billion or even, according to some experts, will exceed a trillion. Of them 320 billion is cross-border trade (import).
The number of virtual stores that merchandised the Russians, you just will not name. They are like mushrooms that appear and disappear. At least at present, the country’s largest trading platform, powered by the famous search engine, has nearly 20 thousand of shops, both foreign and domestic. Of course, they are allowed to work if they meet the law on distance selling, contain information about the legal entity, delivery, etc.
Internet fraudsters, of course, also occur. Periodically prosecute. But if you look at statistics of people with complaints of sellers, the ratio-to-offline Commerce is not in favor of the latter. This is due to the fact that the average check in the Network is much lower, and deceive in a short period of shoulder delivery unprofitable. Risks to be in prison for two pennies is very high.
E-commerce in Russia is about 3-3,5% of the market of offline retailers. In the United States is 10-11%, in China 20% in England — almost 15%.
Ironically, it is “crossborder”, mainly American and Chinese, mobilizes in Russia for more than 80% of new users. You could say it’s the engine of domestic online trading. Last year, foreign stores flowed more than 12 million customers. Moreover, foreign resources do another “good deed” — to teach Russians to online payments and prepayment.
What do you buy? Mainly home appliances and electronics, clothes and shoes. The share of these commodity groups more than 60%. Next in popularity followed by the perfume, cosmetics, auto parts, baby and home goods.
“The situation on the market of online trading may be described as relatively stable, — says commercial Director of one of the capital’s hypermarkets Oleg Pchelnikov. — The national currency was fixed in the corridor 62-67 rubles per dollar and actually provided to the consumer constant prices for the main groups of products. Clients continue to adhere to the strategy of rational choice, focusing on consumer goods. Steadily continue to grow in sales in categories such as sporting goods products for recreation, home repair. In addition, in the third quarter, we record the gradual recovery of interest in certain category goods, household appliances and electronics, due to several reasons. First is pent-up demand: after all, last year closed with one of the worst results over the last 5 years, with buyers there is an urgent need to upgrade. Secondly, the situation was affected by pricing. In the first six months prices for most categories fell even below the level of mid-2015. Especially greatly subsided the cost of equipment is domestically produced refrigerators, washing machines, televisions. While falling sales of photographic equipment, slow cookers”.
Although the market retreated from the turmoil of 2014-2015, buyers now more economical approach to the selection and try not to overpay needlessly. The popularity of the products of medium and lower price segments has increased significantly, brand awareness receded into the background.
At the same time intensified the competition. Found in the Internet and open dumping. Not necessarily talking about poor quality products or outright scams. Reasons why the product is purchased for 1000 and sells for 950, maybe a lot. Maybe the store got some special terms from the vendor. Or, for example, was correctly chosen marketing strategy of the procurement and goods need to get rid of, if only to see the warehouse, the rent of which is expensive. In such hands, entrepreneurs can sell products cheaper than others. In the end will benefit the company, able to work at attracting customers.
China is again ahead of the rest
That buyers was shocked, confirms another trend, namely the growth in the Internet trade share of imports, which reached 35%. This is an absolute record. This has never happened. In the first half of 2016, the number of international parcels grew by 102%, and the number of orders on the domestic market — only 5%.
Most of the foreign shops are in Moscow. Cost allocation Russians following countries: China 51%, EU 24%, US — 12%. But if you take an indicator such as the distribution of merchandise shipments, in units, here China out of competition — 90% of parcels coming from China.
The lion’s share of the virtual purchases cost the Russians cheaper than 22 Euro. Only 1% buys goods in the price range 500-1000 euros. And, as a rule, in Russia. What average order value in our online stores higher than in foreign, not accidental. The client can spend 1,000 rubles to some Chinese trinket, but not ready to buy China TV for 25 thousand rubles.
Everything here is explainable. 1000 euros per month is the current threshold for duty-free import of foreign online parcels. Or the total weight of the imported goods are not more than 31 kg. going beyond these limits are taxed at 30% of the exceeding amount, but not less than €4 per kilogram.
“Every year, Russian retailers are losing an increasing market share of e-commerce, giving foreign companies, says the Executive Director of the AKIT Artem Sokolov. — Today our business is facing a choice: to stay in Russia to continue to pay taxes, but work on low margin, or bring the entire infrastructure abroad, to operate directly from there, without paying any taxes, to increase its net profit by a third. However, the relocation of business activity abroad is something that seeks to avoid any state of the world, because in this case the economy gets absolutely nothing. Maintaining e-commerce in the country is a stimulating tax revenues, creating jobs, investing in trade infrastructure. The gaps in the regulation not keep up with the rapid pace of development of Internet Commerce has led to the fact that today the priority is given to foreign players, actively using the advantages of tax-free trade. If we in the near future want to transfer all entrepreneurs in offshore model, it is necessary to create equal conditions of doing business”.
Alcohol: allow, not allow?
The Ministry of industry together with the business community, experts undertook the development of the draft strategy for the development of Internet trade that should substantially change the rules of the game in the domestic e-Commerce market.
In particular, at the August meeting at the Ministry raised the unpopular topic — the introduction of VAT to foreign online stores, to promote equal economic rights with domestic colleagues. This will require changes in the law to all foreign trade resources was the Russian representative. Many believe that this is unrealistic, since the system of tax administration will be more costly than the collected amount. Plus the rise in the cost of goods would reduce imports.
However, the conditions for duty-free import to Russia of the Internet packages is likely to tighten. In the next 2-3 years monetary threshold on the recommendation of the universal postal Union will gradually reduce to five times — up to €200 per parcel. According to the Ministry of industry and trade, a sharp decline would have led to a shortfall of budget revenues, worsening the situation of low-income citizens, has caused the emergence of new corruption schemes.
To stimulate the network of foreign trade under the brand “made in Russia” will be the mechanism of rebates to exporters of VAT. Plus actively discussing the project of the “Russian Alibaba” — the Internet platform for the export of Russian goods.
Business representatives proposed to extend the limit for an anonymous transfer of electronic payments (currently 15 thousand rubles) and to remove restrictions on the remote sale of medicines and jewellery.
Finally, you can undo the restrictions on the remote sale of medicines and jewellery. With alcohol that the Network is now under the full ban, it’s unclear. “The options being considered are different, — says Deputy Minister of industry and trade Viktor Evtukhov. — When is the ban lifted, can’t say for sure. But it probably needs to be done as quickly as possible, carefully and clearly worked for all conditions. Because it is still through the Internet sell, find the loopholes. At the annual shadow increase online trade of alcohol ranked first, nearly 30% in 2015. And of course, it is important for us to make it in the legal field. As soon as there are some prohibitions, the illegal market of alcohol immediately increases. Already taken a number of steps, including USAIS (unified state information system. — L. B.) today very well. I think the Internet in this regard will greatly help.”
However, in Rosalkogolregulirovanie (PAP) on this issue hold a different position. According to them, about 30 billion rubles, or 22.5%, — the share of illegal production of strong alcoholic in our country.
In Russia, almost 10 years a ban on distance sales of alcohol. The Department insists that first you need to accept the amendment on the possibility of pre-trial blocking of websites that violate the law in the field of allaborate. And only after that to think how to legalize the sale of alcohol online. Maybe there will be public register of such portals or licensing.