On the world stage in geopolitics in General and in individual sectors and industries are increasingly coming to the main stage China. Talk about the accelerated pace of progress “on all fronts” representatives of China nowadays. Russia with this country’s longstanding close ties to the Soviet Union and cooperation of the Communist parties of both countries (although the 1960-1970s the relationship was more strained — and even led to armed conflicts, for example in 1969 the Sino-Soviet Amur), and in the early 1990s to us and did a flood of Chinese goods, alternatives which because of the affordable prices of almost was not. Cooperation has been established to the banal simple: we supply raw materials to China, and back obtain not only clothing and electronics, but also food. Chinese apples, pears, citrus fruits all largely present on the shelves of local stores. And the same juice, for example, with rare exceptions are made, again, from Chinese apples. But how many thought about the fact that a lot of Chinese vegetables — such as tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage — grown Asians are not at home, and we have in Russia?
The quiet onset of the Chinese farmers
Chinese farmers began to master the Russian open spaces almost immediately after the USSR collapsed and the newborn democratic Russia there is a virtually unlimited and uncontrolled freedom of action. The development of it was in the best tradition of Eastern teachings — without impudence, cunningly, patiently, step by step. First settled in the border area, then began to connect all of the new land down to the Kaliningrad region. For the Chinese, any land is good — better than their absence in overpopulated China.
And now by way of the crisis with mutual sanctions between Russia and the West arrived. Did not have time to dry the ink on the list of prohibited to import products, as here, the Chinese announced the construction at the border with our country’s huge vegetable warehouse, stating that the capacity will be enough to ensure the entire Primorye territory and in the future — and all of Russia. Doubt their capabilities, no, because the Chinese are supplying our markets and food stores from Kaliningrad to Vladivostok.
We used to think, for example, that the famous head of the cucumbers grown by our farmers or our pensioners-summer residents in their areas. This is only partly true. After all, most concentrated in the so-called Chinese plantations on our Russian soil. And it is at first glance quite a good version of the production: the Chinese live there for years, lands are in prolonged use, product inspection is carried out on a regular basis. In the same Krasnodar region, almost all tomatoes are grown by the Chinese. At least it was a couple of years ago.
The success of Chinese farmers in Russia is simple: they work on the principle “what is not forbidden — is allowed”, and if the authorities and supervisors can agree, then nothing is forbidden. In General, Chinese farming in Russia can be divided into three categories. The first is the large firms established in the framework of international cooperation, the second — small businesses operating legally in accordance with (or in relative accordance, with small deviations) with the domestic laws and regulations, and the third is a natural farm. What’s going on in the past — it is known only to the Chinese themselves, there are busy. The fact that this type of production involves almost complete isolation from the outside world.
The most common opinion about the Chinese farmers among the local population — that it is the pests that come, poison the earth and go to learn the next plot. Here is nomadic agriculture. Moving from place to place wouldn’t be a problem: even in “legal” farms are all very primitive. Greenhouses made of simple wooden slats with a tight film Yes, the General barracks for the night with cardboard partitions between the benches. That’s all. This whole business rests on the remarkable endurance and work productivity of Chinese workers: one Chinese treats per day 4 times larger area than our work. The level of mechanization in the process tends to zero. A couple of cultivators — the ultimate dream of Chinese workers. No new technologies and developments may not be considered. Expensive stationary glass greenhouses with Central heating and lighting, modern appliances — extremely a lot of big domestic or maximum joint enterprises.
Barbaric methods for Stakhanovite pace
About the attitude of Chinese resources almost legends go. And there’s a good reason. Here is a good example of what is happening in the far East: in the early 2000s in Zabaykalsky Krai not some nomadic farmers, and big company “Sinbad” was rented 40% of the territory of mogochinsky area. In return, the Chinese had to build a pulp mill. At first glance good cooperation and support in the development of industry in Russia. But in fact opened a new frontier crossing Pokrovka — Loguhe, in fact, just for the sake of uncontrolled export of timber. The transition lasted 10 years and eventually was closed. While on its side, China has imposed a ban on logging! That is, under the guise of investment activity went banal draining our natural resources.
After that, somehow, but was revived the project amazarsk pulp mill, an agreement which was signed in 2003. The project is extremely harmful from an environmental point of view of production, placed on the most important area for the tributary of the Amur, the river Amazar were disassembled into separate components: the plant itself, a dam with a reservoir, a village of 2,000 guest workers and forest development in 3-4 areas. These projects passed environmental review and was not approved at the public hearing. But this did not stop, and all the requirements to consider and assess the implications of the start of production is simply ignored and the customer and local authorities. And with jobs for locals, not a lot. According to the agreement at all stages of creation Amaterskog of the plant must be brought not less than 50% of the local workforce. But in the end 5 Chinese account for only 1 local. So what is the intermediate result of all this action? It has been 12 years, and we have no PPM, no wood, no jobs.
The secret of success in workers from China
Looking at all this, are given a reasonable question: how is it that while our farmers complain of expensive loans, expensive rent, expensive seeds, expensive fertilizer, poor weather and low demand, the Chinese do not get tired to go to us, no matter what? Thing again in a much better performance. And this is not just a question of diligence. Only one continuous weeding the beds will not help to take three crops per season even in the Chelyabinsk region. The secret is they bring all of their own: unpretentious seed hybrids, fertilizers, and even film for greenhouses. All this occurs most often “gray” ways — without intermediaries, fees, and other objective reasons high end prices. All experiments with domestic seedlings did not lead to the desired result. And the result for Chinese living in conditions of acute shortage of land, the yield. The taste and quality of the product is secondary. This feature of the national agriculture.
And to achieve that, all methods are good. For this, first and foremost, beyond measure are in the course of fertilizer. It is often ammonium nitrate and urea. For the uninitiated, it sounds especially creepy, but you need to explain that in our farms, too, these substances are used, but only at the initial stage, for feeding seedlings. A further application is unacceptable. But it’s not so bad. Worse is the fact that it is unknown in which cases what kind of fertiliser used. On certification of products and no one heard. Of course, you can include a vegetable to the laboratory for examination. But you’re first task will be met with the question, what should I look for? The fact that specialists in chemical-Toxicological laboratory service for veterinary and phytosanitary surveillance there are only certain tokens — and they are able to identify only 5-6 products authorised in Russia. All other growth factors remain a mystery.
If you do everything by the rules, the grower needs to calculate the pesticide load, make a plan, make preparations and then carry the finished products to the lab to obtain the certificate. Long, difficult, expensive. Unprofitable. From the point of view of the Chinese, the more fertilizers, the better. But this does not mean that workers in greenhouses are specially insidiously try to poison, exceeding more than twice the content of plant growth regulators in Krasnoyarsk vegetables. Just a different mentality: if fertilizer is released and it helps, then it’s good. And if wholesalers are willing to buy, subsequently giving Chinese tomatoes from Siberia and the Urals for the best of the Krasnodar region, this only confirms the quality of the fertilizer. According to their logic, if the fertilizer was bad, then it would not be released, and even more Chinese agronomists would not recommend it to abundant use. And the fact that even weeds don’t grow on bad soil, so that means that the earth only became better cleansed from weeds.
The benefits for everyone except the consumer
With this approach, the cost, for example, cucumbers get about 3 rubles, wholesalers buy at 6 to 10 rubles for 1 kg On the markets and in the trading network they get even more expensive. With such prices no typical problems of domestic agriculture such as the lack of a sufficient number of vegetable storage facilities is not terrible. In any case, all will be sold out. Plus these vegetables differ not only in local markets, but also distributed to retailers, despite the absence of any of the certificates. To pull this off, using a simple scheme: individual entrepreneur arrives at the base, negotiating with the Chinese, the party takes a minimum of several hundred kilograms. Then buys some really high-quality vegetables, perhaps even the grandmother from the next village, and went with them to the examination as a manufacturer. Of course, such clean vegetable without any problems will pass the test and will receive a certificate. And with this certificate, savvy go-getter delivers the goods in a trading network. Simple and effective. The costs of obtaining the certificate and is agreed with the procurement Manager in the trading network more than compensated due to the multiple difference in the price.
Multiple harvests per season allow smooth out seasonal price fall for vegetables. And here for these few crops, the Chinese begin to prepare the greenhouse in February, warming them in simple stoves with wood. All conveniently at hand, but these “features” suffer the next forest: the trees are cut down for firewood and the frames of the greenhouses, and instead the forest is filled with old greenhouse film, which is distributed throughout the County. Sooner or later the good earth turned into a lifeless cesspool. In China, by the way, about 3 million hectares of unserviceable due to excessive use of pesticides. And analysis of soils in Krasnoyarsk region have shown excess of maximum permissible concentration of benzopyrene (a substance dangerous to the human body) in some samples almost 50 times. But the land is not his own — not sorry.
Historically and geographically it developed that one of the largest clusters of Chinese agriculture was formed in Chelyabinsk. Officially in summer, agriculture in the region employs about 4,000 people, according to the Consul of the PRC in Ekaterinburg. In the Novosibirsk region works about 2000 Chinese in the Krasnoyarsk region — about 1,500, in Sverdlovsk and Omsk areas — even a thousand. And according to the press service of the Governor of the Chelyabinsk region, southern Urals is one of the first places in Russia by volume of production of vegetables by Chinese citizens.
In General, it is noteworthy that in Chelyabinsk the issue of Chinese farmers is not hushed up, and touted as one of the main achievements of international cooperation. Officials even publicly praise the quality of Chinese products. It would be interesting to know what criteria exhibited similar estimates, for example, in neighboring Sverdlovsk region in the sale of 50% of the vegetables are exceeded by harmful substances and almost all of these vegetables have been grown in Chinese greenhouses.
According to the head of the organization for the protection of labor and social rights of Chinese in the Chelyabinsk area Andrey Suzdalev, a greenhouse brings in a month about 6 million rubles of profit. However, this does not mean that Chinese farmers are reaping enormous profits. Managers complain that they must pay for everything in order not to be expelled to his home — get paid to not take products for tests — get paid to greenhouses demolished by bulldozers, pay. And at odds most of the profit. Hard to believe that here without corruption. It would be naive to assume about the huge greenhouse of the field, no one knows.
The Chinese leave, but only to return
However, farmers have objective problems solely economic nature. For example, the fall of the ruble. Managers of businesses that sell products in Russia, expect the salary to workers also in rubles. And if a few years ago, six months of work in Russia allows to make savings, and peacefully return home with the money, now things are not so simple. Some workers say that if this trend continues, then next year would not make sense to come to Russia and say that the workers are not spoiled even in the poorest Northern regions of China.
Also, lately it has become a noticeable trend in the eviction of illegal farmers. But this process in different regions is different. Some slow motion is in the Krasnoyarsk region. There, the court even ordered the land owners to carry out remediation of 282 hectares of land. But the sense of formal court decisions and prohibitions on the conduct of plant activities little: often, soon, still, “cleared” appears exactly the same new greenhouse. But the new quota on the admission of Chinese workers are no longer issued (on the other hand, and 1433 is already occupied by Chinese, too, not deported). One of the most radical ways to solve the problem of illegal farmers were in the Krasnodar region: in front of a home Olympics, almost all Chinese people quietly “asked” to leave. Before the Olympics in the Krasnodar region Chinese greenhouse complex was occupied by about 15 to 16 thousand hectares. Now, in most cases, in their place, a wasteland. So if you want this problem can be solved, we need only the will “from above”, and, perhaps, a direct indication for the most leisurely of local officials.
But the danger is that in place of these farmers come new interested companies. Here only, as a rule, it is not domestic farmers, and the Chinese giant companies, ready to invest billions. According to the food and agriculture organization of the UN (FAO), China is able to feed himself, but it would be unprofitable. Imports of food for them — a deliberate and calculated way. It is cheaper. One of the most sensational cases — hire more than 115 thousand hectares in TRANS-Baikal territory for a maximum period of 49 years with the company Zoje Resources Investment. The region will receive about 1.4 billion rubles for the whole lease term, it is about 250 rubles a year, and promise to bring investment of 250 million euros. Given such a fantastically low cost of rent (our farmers are prices not dream), there is no doubt that they are not the last tenants. The only two facts: Zoje Resources Investment is the daughter of the infamous “Sinbad”, a shameless waste wood instead of building the mill, and secondly, they’re going to grow soybeans. Careless use of the land, this culture leaves behind is almost a desert.
What’s wrong with the Russian farming
Examples of projects with Chinese a lot, because they don’t care about the Russian measures to support agriculture. Or the lack of them. Chinese capital allows us to develop agriculture almost anywhere. Domestic farmers face many challenges which entrepreneurs from China. Unlike the Chinese “black farmers” our farmers there is no possibility to force to work people 16 hours a day with minimum wage, slavery is now prohibited, and the glory of God! One option is to use a technique that automatically pulls a credit. But sufficient start-up capital is only a limited number of large enterprises. For example, domestic harvester production “Rostselmash” is about 5.2 million, and even with the government subsidies will be no less than 3.6 million too much in order for the ordinary farmer to rely solely on their money. And here we are faced with the following problem: many banks, only hearing about agriculture, they give you the refusal of a loan, considering such a venture is too risky. And those that are ready to give money, require at least 20% per annum. There is already melting the determination of the farmers.
Therefore, the success stories we have, as a rule, begins with the fact that the entrepreneurs had to sell the house and move to live in the back in the workplace. Similar biography and the owner of the cheese factory “Russian cheese”, and the organizers of the farmers in the Chelyabinsk region, which is now only cultivated under wheat 1000 ha. the only difference is that the cheesemaker started working 20 years later. If in the mid-90s, this approach could still be justified, in the XXI century is savagery.
Apart in these rows is kept, except that the project company “Jozsi the Sheng” on the establishment of model agricultural farms with an area of 10 thousand hectares And the volume of investments 400 million euros. This project will focus on a more efficient use of resources. The more that China is now gaining popularity imported products with an acceptable level of hazardous substances. In the minds of many Chinese (at least with above-average income) were fixed, and not without reason, the idea that local vegetables can’t be of high quality. So Russian products, especially grown by our farmers without chasing a record volume, has all chances to occupy a promising niche. Also Russia is the main supplier of feed for the construction of the world’s largest farm Zhongding Dairy Farming for 100 thousand heads. This will require of the arable area of some 100 hectares And such plans should result in new investment projects, because in the past five-year development plan of China recorded that it is necessary to buy shares of companies that export food to China.
There is a solution
But it is naive to hope that the Chinese will come and give our farmers the money for the development. Just so no one nobody nothing to give. You need to develop on their own, but not reinventing the wheel and learning where everything is long established. We’re not the first to try to develop and maintain agriculture in a civilized manner, and not tons of chemicals. The process of formation of agriculture was held in Canada, in many ways similar to Russia with its climate and often difficult weather conditions. In the transition from state ownership to private sector are faced with problems, for many this type of business was unknown. So, the allocation of subsidies to farmers was then found to be ineffective. It distorts the risks in the long term and achieve short-term results. For example, our subsidies to agriculture: was the subsidy given to the manufacturer provided a discount, then the technique goes to the dealers, which make even a cheat, much more than before. General assistance program of the Ministry of agriculture is very complicated, some support measures overlap, some contradict each other. In the end, about 25% of the allocated for support of agriculture of the money remain unused at all.
Canada, ranked third in the world in terms of agricultural exports, rather quickly refused the leading role of subsidies and moved on to the creation of favorable conditions for doing business and provide targeted support. Now the main priorities is long-term planning of the industry, price regulation and support demand. This is logical: if there is a stable demand, so farmers will have a stable income, and what equipment is better to buy — they will understand themselves. But actively develop and implement programs of protection of agricultural production in the medium term, adaptation strategies and technologies to real production with a detailed risk assessment, is the compensation of expenses of the processing enterprises for quality control of raw materials, implements programs of debt restructuring of farmers under funding of R & d, allowing to carry out breeding work (and hardy plants, by the way — one of the trump cards of our Chinese), are special autumn interest-free loans, allowing farmers to delay marketing of products for the sake of avoiding filling market and the collapse of prices for the products.
Sooner or later, the natural period of the greenhouses will take place. From them a lot of harm to the environment, and the vegetables, objectively speaking, do not get any taste. However, for all its faults the Chinese presence in our land has done one important thing: they showed us that growing vegetables is possible even where previously almost no one tried to grow on an industrial scale. Of course, this barbaric approach is unacceptable. Yes, it is not necessary because there are already well-established measures, they are applied on a regular basis and helped make agriculture one of the greatest advantages of Canada.
It is time for us to focus not on the allocation and redistribution of the money supply on the infinite incomprehensible construction, procurement and other hard-to-trace routes and to focus on ensuring demand for quality products. Volumes of Chinese defeat, in this respect, their methods are out of competition. But it is also true that Chinese products are in the majority can not compete with the domestic quality. High quality and demand — that anchor the principles of successful agriculture development in Russia.