On Friday, the Norwegian Nobel Committee in Oslo announced the winner of the peace prize became President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos: the agreement with the rebels on cessation of hostilities, isnurance the South American country for five decades.
Indeed, recently the government of Colombia and the leadership of the leftist guerrilla group FARC reached under the mediation of the Cuban agreement on the cessation lasted half a century of civil war. So the media widely discussed the possibility of awarding the peace prize to Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos and the rebel leader Rodrigo “Tymoshenko” Londoño. Scepticism was based, however, on what is held in a Latin American country, a referendum showed that more than half of voters Colombians voted against peace with the rebel group. But optimists argued that the award might encourage the leaders to continue the quest for a peaceful solution to the conflict. Especially since the last time the representatives of Latin America were awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1992. So Columbia now two “nobelovca” – Juan Manuel Santos, and the writer Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Whatever it was, it would be logical to award and partner of President Santos, the leader of the FARC.
The Nobel peace prize unlike other awards dedicated to the memory of Alfred Nobel is awarded not in Sweden, and in Norway. For the founder of the award has earned the reputation as the inventor of dynamite, but all his life he professed pacifist ideas. In 1888, one of the French Newspapers mistakenly published a message of Nobel’s death, calling him a “merchant of explosive death”. Nobel is a very strongly acted and he decided not to stay in the memory of mankind “dynamite king”, to change the will. As a result, was born the Nobel prize.
We will remind that last year the winner was “the Tunisian Quartet national dialogue”, which have made efforts to stabilize the situation in this North African country after the events of the “Arab spring”. And this year the list of candidates for the peace prize were 376 names (after all 148 candidates are organizations). These figures beat the record in 2014, when candidates were 278.
The names of nominees must be kept confidential for at least 50 years, All nominations are reviewed by a Committee consisting of five members elected by the Norwegian Parliament before the formation of short-list of 20-30 candidates. These candidates are compiled individual reports written by a group of Norwegian and foreign advisers. Then there is a further “screening” of candidates. The final decision is made at the last meeting of the Committee (usually in late September or early October). If there is no unanimous opinion about the winner, then the vote occurs. The winner gets a medal, a diploma, a rank of the Nobel laureate and a cash award of $930 thousand
While the press has traditionally expressed a lot of speculation about the future of the winners, guess who would get the Nobel, is not easy. In the last seven years are registered at the bookies favorite for the peace prize never won awards.
To favorites media have carried this year, the Russian human rights activist Svetlana Gannushkinu, head of the Committee “Civil assistance”, which provides legal and other assistance to migrants and refugees. Director of the Institute for peace research (Oslo) Kristian Berg of Harpviken put Svetlana Alekseevna to the top of his short list of possible winners this year. Last year, the “Civil assistance” was included in the list of “foreign agents”.
Media called as the reward is quite unusual candidates – inhabitants of the Greek Islands, which were sympathetic to arriving by sea to the Syrian refugees. Among the representatives who symbolized by this group: 85-year-old Emilia Calvisi from the island of Lesbos (known for her photography, which she feeds from a bottle Syrian baby), fisherman Stratis Viliamos who saved himself from the water, a lot of refugees, as well as Hollywood actress Susan Sarandon, which was engaged in volunteer work on the Islands.
As likely winners and called us Secretary of energy Ernest Monica and the head of the atomic energy Organization of Iran Ali Akbar Salehi for a “nuclear deal” between the West and Tehran. These two provided the technical details of the important agreement demonstrates an example of “science diplomacy”.
Was among the possible winners of the famous name of Edward Snowden to be awarded in Norway the prize of freedom of speech name Osiecka. For reference: the German pacifist journalist Carl von Ossietzky is one of the three “nobelesse” (along with a politician from Myanmar Aung San Suu Kyi and Chinese activist Liu Xiaobo), who at the time the awards were under arrest. Mentioned award must present Snowden in November, but his personal presence is at issue: whistleblowers need assurance that he is not extradited to the United States.
Again, as last year, there has been speculation about awarding of Angela Merkel for her open-door policy for Syrian refugees. But clearly her star has faded recently amid rushing over her criticism for how it is managed with the migrant crisis.
Called again gynecologist Denis Mukwege for helping victims of rape in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2014, the European Parliament awarded him the prestigious Sakharov prize.
In the lists of possible favorites were the “White helmets” – a team of several thousand volunteers (students, teachers, farmers, etc.), helping people plagued by violent battles Aleppo, Syria. Although they operate mainly in opposition-held areas, “White helmets” insist on its neutrality.
There has been speculation about Pope Francis – not only for his preaching of peace, love and social justice, but also for mediation in the solution of the same Colombian conflict and the normalization of relations between the U.S. and Cuba.
Some statistics: from 1901 to 2015 was produced by 96 of the Nobel peace prize. In 19 cases the award was not made primarily in the years of both World wars. On two occasions the peace prize was divided into three. In 1994, the award was given to Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin, and in 2011 to three women: Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah gbowee and tawakkol Karman. By the way, to the present time among the winners of the Nobel peace prize was listed by 16 women. All in all, as of last year, the prize winners of the world were 103 individuals and 26 organizations. The international Committee of the red cross and the Office of the UN high Commissioner for refugees was awarded twice. The youngest winner was 17-year-old Pakistani activist Malala yousafzai. And the oldest is 87-year-old British physicist, a fighter for nuclear disarmament sir Joseph Rotblat (1995).
From the prize, refused the Vietnamese politician Le Duc tho, who along with the then U.S. Secretary of state Henry Kissinger was given the award in 1973 for negotiating a peaceful settlement in Vietnam. However, Le Duc tho found it impossible to obtain a “Nobel” until the end of the war in his country.
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