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Thursday, February 22, 2018

The Nobel prize was given for the observation of yeasts

The Nobel Committee in Stockholm announced the winners of 2016 in medicine – it was a Japanese scientist, Yoshinori Osumi. A researcher from the land of the rising sun will receive 8 million Swedish kronor for the detection of cells with the ability to eat their own damaged parts. Russian colleagues see this as the opening of important applied meaning.

Osumi himself totally did not expect that his work will be appreciated at such a high level. Live on Swedish radio, he said that the message from Stockholm caught him by surprise.

“The difference between current premium of the premium, for example, the last year is that this time she was awarded for fundamental science”

Secretary of the Nobel Committee, Thomas Perlman, caller Japanese scientist to announce the happy news that the prize in medicine will get to it, confirms that in response, he was just confused.

“The first thing he said was “Ahhh”. I think he was surprised and pleased,” said Perlman reporters in Stockholm in connection with the representation of the name of the winner this year, reports RIA “Novosti”.

In an official statement the Nobel Committee States that “the winner of this year he discovered and described the mechanism of autophagy is a fundamental process of removing and disposing of the components of the cells”. Press release prize decrypt the term autophagy, which comes from the Greek words “autos” meaning “self,” and “phagein”, which means “to eat”. It captures the essence of open Osumi properties of cells to eat themselves, or rather their own units, which have become unnecessary.

Violations in the process of autophagy or purification of cells from the “garbage” can lead to the development of diseases such as cancer and neurological disease, therefore knowledge of the mechanism of self-purification of cells can lead to new and effective generation of drugs.

“It is possible that soon we will be able to get drug that uses the properties of autophagy”, – said the Chairman of the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute rune Toftgard, commenting on the award.

Basic science

“The difference between current premium of the premium, for example, the last year is that this time she was awarded for basic science, – said the newspaper VIEW the member-correspondent of the Russian Academy of Sciences, head of laboratory of molecular mechanisms of immunity of the Institute of biology. Engelhardt, head of the Department of immunology, faculty of biology, Moscow state University. M. V. Lomonosova, Sergei Purpose. – If last year’s Nobel was awarded for the cure for worms and malaria – only applied achievements, but this year a Japanese researcher, Yoshinori Osumi made the discovery by studying yeast cells”.

“Of course, his research will be used in medicine because they discovered property of cells to devour their own damaged organelles and the cells themselves – autophagy – applies to the man as a multicellular organism. This can be used in several application areas, for example, in the study of the aging process, the treatment of diabetes, genetic and certain cancers, but in General it is, of course, high, basic science – physiology cells,” – said the expert.

Deputy Director on scientific work of scientific clinical center of pediatric Hematology, Oncology and immunology. Rogacheva Alexei Maschan also noted that “any outdoor gear that is studying cell death, can be potentially useful in approaches to cancer treatment. Because the goal of cancer treatment is the most complete destruction of tumor cells”.

He recalled that before the discovery of autophagy was known two mechanisms of cell death: necrosis, when cells become swollen, swelled and burst, and the so-called apoptosis, which is exactly the opposite, when the cells were shrinking, the core was fragmented, and they died and were absorbed by the surrounding cells. “But this mechanism, it is intermediate, too programmed, too regulated a large number of genes, and it is a very interesting third mechanism of cell death. So, of course, this is a very important, fundamental discovery, which will soon grow do new approaches in the treatment of tumors,” – concluded the expert.

It is noteworthy that he, Yoshinori Osumi believes that the search for “good” science is ruining society. “Science will be really useful, maybe in 100 years. Looking to the future, I hope there will be a society in which science becomes one kind of culture,” said Osumi.

Japanese leadership

Osumi is an honorary Professor of the Tokyo University of technology. He completed a fellowship at the University of Tokyo, studied in America, he returned home and was engaged in fundamental studies of living organisms. In 1988, he saw under the microscope the process of active movement of protein within vacuoles of the yeast cells. The yeast cell, lack of food, began to break down protein to use it as a source of energy.

The winner this year is the sixth scientist from Japan, who won the award for medicine or physiology.

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe immediately after the announcement of the winner during a press conference called Yoshinori Osumi and congratulated him on his award. “The results of the study Sensei became a beacon of light for people struggling with cancer and other serious diseases. It is the pride for me as a Japanese,” said Abe.

Osumi also admitted that dreamed of a long prize: “the Nobel prize has a special weight. This has been my dream since childhood”. But his wife, who was present at the press conference, said that her husband never was an ambitious man and it first of all is surprised.

Last year’s winners of the most prestigious scientific awards in the world in the category “Medicine and physiology” were three scientists: the American William Campbell, Japanese Satoshi Omura and Chinese Yu Tu. They were awarded for invention of new drugs against parasitic infections.

It is expected that awarding of Nobel laureates will take place on 10 December in Stockholm, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death. Each of them will receive 8 million Swedish kronor, that is, 932 thousand dollars.

On Tuesday, the Nobel Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences will announce the name of the laureate in physics.


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