Monday, October 3, in Sweden and Norway has a traditional “Nobel week”. First, according to tradition, became the Nobel prize in physiology and medicine. The winner of 2016 was the Japanese scientist, Yoshinori Osumi for his discoveries of the mechanisms of autophagy.
Specialist in the field of cell biology to Professor Osumi 71, works at the Tokyo Institute of technology, centre for advanced studies. In 2012 he received the Kyoto prize for achievements in basic Sciences. Autophagy, the mechanisms of which were investigated by the scientist, is the process by which the internal cell components are delivered inside lysosomes (in mammals) or vacuoles (yeast cells) and subjected them to degradation.
Last year the winners were announced Irishman William Campbell, Japanese Satoshi Omura and Chinese Yu Tu. The first two received the award for discoveries in the field of therapy against infections caused by round worms. A Professor of the Chinese Academy of traditional medicine of the Tu Yu for her discoveries in the treatment of malaria. By the way, she came under the fifth number in the top ten of the most popular winners of this award, which is headed by the name of our great compatriot physiologist Ivan Pavlov (prize he was awarded in 1904).
This year for the Nobel prize in physiology and medicine was nominated 273 scientists. And as usual, the media and other sources to practice guessing the names of the winners.
For example, Swedish public radio SR possible “labelitemi” named three American scientists who have committed to open in the area of molecular mechanisms by which cells of humans and animals feel, and of relevance to low or inadequate levels of oxygen. This is Semenza Gregg (Gregg Semenza), William Calin (William Kaelin) and Peter Ratcliff Peter Ratcliff). The trio last month won a prestigious American Prize, the albert Lasker for basic medical research.
Meanwhile, Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter as a possible presidential winner named two other American scientists, immunologist James Allison (James Allison) and a specialist in the field of neurology Deisseroth Karl (Karl Deisseroth).
The decision to award the awards in physiology and medicine was adopted by the Nobel Assembly, which consists of 50 professors working in Karolinska Institute (Stockholm). The award is given to those who made a discovery that changed the understanding of life or medical practice. During the discussions, the Committee members carefully study and discuss candidates. After that the Nobel Assembly is by secret ballot, the result of which a decision is made about who will receive the award.
The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute last month found themselves in scandalous situations – two members asked to leave this structure in connection with operations by Italian surgeon Paolo Macaroni in 2011-2013 Conducted by the Italian brought him worldwide fame operation to replace a damaged trachea, stem cells are dotted with a frame made of polymer led to the death of patients and to complications in their health.
Most often in recent years, awards are given for discoveries relating to DNA and molecular biology. In the period from 1901 to 2014 was awarded to 106 Nobel prizes in physiology and medicine. And only in 38 cases, the award was received by one winner – often it is divided between several scientists. To this day the medical Nobel peace prize received twelve women. Never been cases of posthumous award.
The average age of the laureates in physiology and medicine at the time the award is 58 years. The youngest of the winners is a 32-year-old Frederick Banting (he was awarded in 1923 for the discovery of insulin). Most elderly in 1966 became the 87-year-old Peyton Rous, was awarded for discoveries of viruses that cause a brain tumor.