A referendum in Colombia, which was supposed to end one of the longest civil wars in modern history, has ended unexpectedly – the citizens rejected the Treaty with the rebels. The leader of the Revolutionary armed forces of Colombia, known as Timoleon Jimenez or comrade Tymoshenko, confirms: “the Love in our hearts is huge.” Why the majority of participants in the referendum rejected the proposal of the world?
Citizens of Colombia on the eve of the last referendum said no to the peace agreement signed by the authorities and rebels of the Revolutionary armed forces of Colombia (FARC, the group is also known under the original acronym FARC). The agreement, which was signed last week as was supposed to end half a century of civil war, waged by the government and leftist guerrillas.
“Much of the endless American aid, which millions were abandoned to Colombia, settled in the pockets of middlemen”
Note that, according to the results of counting of votes, the opinions of Colombians were divided almost equally, but those who voted against, was little more than support the agreement: 49,76%, compared with 50.23%.
Note that on the eve of the vote experts said that chances of support of a peace agreement are high. If the citizens approved the peace agreement, the Parliament began to prepare a package of laws necessary for the implementation of reconciliation with the insurgents of FARC. Now the country’s President Juan Manuel Santos will be forced to revoke the agreement to end 50 years of civil war, which has already been dubbed historic.
Recall that the FARC began their war for “building a society of social justice and equality” in 1964. Victims more than half a century of armed conflict became at least 220 thousand people, about 5 million people became refugees. The conflict has involved neighboring countries.
Venezuela under President Hugo Chavez has accused the active assistance of the ideological supporters of the Colombian rainforest. As previously noted the newspaper VIEW, Washington imposed sanctions on a number of officials, parliamentarians and the military of Venezuela (but not the first category). Grounds alleged, but not proven government links Caracas with FARC guerrillas.
Indirectly, the conflict involved the US – since the 1960s and the 2000s years, the Pentagon and the CIA provided assistance to the authorities, including the supply of arms and trainers for the military and security services.
If the Colombians said “Yes”, then four years of negotiations led government, to be crowned with success. The guerrillas would then be obliged within 180 days to surrender their weapons and start to reintegrate into Colombian society. Should we expect that after the “no” in the referendum the civil war will continue?
“Tymoshenko” – for peace
President Santos has already admitted the defeat of his supporters in the referendum: “I will not give up until the last minute of his presidency, I will seek peace.” He also said that the agreement on cease-fire with the FARC continues to operate despite the failure of the Colombians to support the peace agreement.
Note that the commitment to peace was also expressed by the leader of the rebel group, FARC commander Rodrigo Londoño Echeverri, also known under the pseudonym Timoleon Jimenez and more under the curious nickname of Tymoshenko, or Timochenko). “FARC confirm his will to the world and emphasize a willingness to use the word only as a creative weapon”, – quotes the portal Peru21, the words of comrade Timoshenko.
“Love in our hearts is huge, and our words and actions we will be able to achieve peace”, – stated in the message the FARC in the official microblog of the rebels on Twitter.
“Narkopolitika” against cocaine
Note that the current President Santos of Colombia, being elected in 2010, promised to continue the offensive of the security forces on rebel positions. A month after the inauguration of Santos was killed the second man in FARC, Victor Suarez Rohos nicknamed Mono Hohoy.
However, by 2011, the Colombian Congress was forced to admit that the “Revolutionary armed forces”, with about 18 thousand soldiers still control about a third of the country, and moved to the tactics of infiltration in the areas held by the authorities, militants dressed in civilian clothes. However, partly be able to talk about the success of the authorities in the 1990s, the guerrillas have controlled 45% of the territory and even threatened the capital, Bogota.
In 2012, on the initiative of the authorities in Oslo, negotiations started between the government and FARC; later, the dialogue moved to ideologically close to the rebels Havana. After several breaks of the truce dialogue was resumed. Moreover, in 2014 the FARC agreed with the authorities on the joint fight against drug trafficking.
Note that for the rebels, who since the early 1980s, began to practice “revolutionary tax” to the major producers of cocaine, was charged by authorities in the production and sale of drugs, in the official propaganda for the rebels has earned the nickname “narkopolitika”.
Finally, in August 2016, the official FARC and Bogota have come to peace agreement – which should be confirmed in a referendum.
“Maybe people are afraid”
The Deputy Director on scientific work of Institute of Latin America of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nikolai Kalashnikov believes that the vote for breaking the agreement with the rebels, Colombians do not believe the intentions of the FARC to move on to civilian life. “Maybe people are afraid of what actively infiltrate the political life of the country, the rebels will take control of those authorities, selected population, and thus will be able to change the situation in the country. For example, there could be a roll to the left,” – said Kalashnikov the OPINION, adding that the country is tired of half a century of civil war.
He suggested that the government will continue a policy of explaining his position and will seek the approval of the agreement. “There is no other way. New does not want war neither the government nor the guerrillas themselves,” – said Kalashnikov.
Extremely low turnout
In turn, researcher, Russian state humanitarian University, specialist on Latin America Michael Blanch said that for breach of the agreement were not all Colombians because the turnout in the referendum was unexpectedly very low – 37%. But supporters of the severance agreement was more of a fraction of a cent in numerical terms – margin amounted to 59 thousand people.
Blanch noted that in the world voted by the departments of the Caribbean coast and bordering Brazil and Venezuela. “In those departments, the war was concentrated and very serious until recently. There are people dying, there are Coca crops. There are 90-odd percent voted for peace. Voted against the Central departments and large cities – where the war was not long ago. They did not vote against peace, and for the revision of the agreement,” explained Blanch the newspaper VIEW.
Against unconditional Amnesty
The idea that the Treaty can be corrected, originated from former President Alvaro Uribe, who is now in the status of the Senator and leader of the “Democratic centre”. “That Uribe and the party were the initiators of the slogan “No peace Treaty”. They want to remove from the agreement the points of unconditional Amnesty for transitional justice”, – he reminded.
According to Besta, all this is seen by the desire Uribe to run again for the presidential election in 2018, but from the perspective not of a forgotten Senator, and a person, “who has a very serious impact on the political processes in the country.”
The second reason of such outcome of voting is the presence of many vested interests to continue the war, the expert believes.
Who needs a war?
First of all, the continuation of the conflict are interested traffickers, because the civil war for the last 10 years has turned into the drug trade, and those who supplied the national army.
“It’s endless American aid, which millions were abandoned in Colombia and which went to the army. Many of these settled in the pockets of middlemen. There are serious forces, including among the political elite that are not interested in the fact that now all this came to an abrupt halt, as intended by the agreements,” explained Whiten.
Venezuela will not help
The experts are sure that the outcome of the referendum will not affect the position of Venezuela, which in the past has expressed sympathy for the Colombian guerrillas. Venezuela have their problems, says Kalashnikov. “They are not to support the Colombian rebels. Moreover, the rebels do not want to fight,” – said the expert.
According to Balata, Venezuela has never provided strong support to Colombian guerrillas, and “gave them the opportunity to leave their territory, have there camps, recreation”. “I have not heard that Venezuela gave money, supplied weapons, contained guerrilla groups. It was not. Help Caracas was not decisive in this struggle. Now Venezuela is not able at all to provide any assistance,” concluded Michael Blanch.