Professor, University of Tokyo asinari Osumi (Yoshinori Ohsumi was the first of this year’s Nobel prize. For purely scientific formulation, “the discovery of the mechanisms of autophagy” (precisely because it awarded the prize to Japanese) hides the most important fundamental mechanism that will help in the future to find the means to prolong life. Details open the “MK” was cleared by the candidate of biological Sciences, leading researcher of the biological faculty of Moscow state University. Lomonosov Maxim Skulachev.
– Of course the discovery deserves the Nobel prize. Autophagy is a completely basic biological mechanism of self-purification, and sometimes even cell death, ” says Skulachev. Our skin is covered with a Horny layer of cells or the bark of trees,- all this is all the result of autophagy: once the cells were alive, then began to slowly digest itself and turned into a lifeless but very important part of the body. The process of how the phenomenon was described long ago, but Professor Osumi figured out exactly how it happens, discovered the phenomenon from the most simple organisms — yeast, “mad” they have genes that control this process. In General, he’s a big boy.
The process of autophagy, according to Skulachev study in many countries, including ours. But such a detailed, comprehensive baseline study has never been.
Also scientist happy that the Nobel prize drew the attention of biologists not only to the questions of the origin of something, but to the question: “Where did it go?”. All biological objects have a certain life expectancy. This also applies to cells, and intracellular organisms, and organisms in General. And that, according to Maxim Skulachev, not particularly eager to study biologists: “It looks like sometimes for some thanatophobia — the fear of death.”
“So, what exactly has enriched the knowledge Bank Professor Osumi?
– Autophagy is used by our body when it needs to destroy large broken objects, for example, intracellular structures, or mitochondria. There are special proteins that stuck to the idle unit, then the whole structure is enveloped in a membrane. In the next step there are two options: lysosomes are able to digest and process when to eat something failed it is impossible and the waste is ejected from the cell to the outside. The bark of trees – is an example.
Interestingly, the process of fasting stimulates autophagy. While a lot of food and all is well, the body can afford to “contain” the dirty cells. And when is no fat, it activates the mechanism and eat up all the junk inside.
– And if not…
– Then there are serious violations, even developing Alzheimer’s disease. Opening Osumi is a very important fundamental mechanism that will help in the future to create thousands of new drugs, stimulating and maintaining the process of autophagy.
– Uncontrollable process of autophagy is?
– No. It would be as impossible as impossible unmanageable job waste incineration plant. There are also all designed and verified.
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