Today, October 3, opens in Stockholm the Nobel week during which winners will be announced four of the five prizes established under the will of chemist, engineer and inventor Alfred Nobel. Pretty soon will be named the name or names of the holders of the first prizes — in physiology and medicine. The names of the other winners will be announced 4,5, 7 and 13 October and 10 October we will know who will receive the prize in economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel.
Although officially, the Nobel Committee until the awards are not even hints on who may be the winners every year a number of predictions on the subject is the company Thomson Reuters and it often happens that some of the assumptions really justified. This year, according to experts, the prize in physiology or medicine rewarded the authors of one of the three big discoveries of recent times. The first one concerns the influence of the proteins CD28 and CTLA-4 on the production of T-cells and stimulation of immune response. Research on this subject conducted by James Ellison, Jeffrey Blyston and Craig Thompson. The second research work, also having a chance to qualify for the award, was presented to the Americans by Gordon Freeman and Arlene Sharpe, as well as a representative of Japan, Honjo Tasuku. These professionals failed to study the principles of programmed cell death protein-immunoglobulin PD1. Finally, the third contenders for the award, according to forecast Thomson Reuters will be even some scholars from the USA: Michael Hall, David Sabatini and Stuart Schreiber. Their study focuses on the Target rapamycin in mammals (mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR), which plays a Central role in the control of cell growth.
Tomorrow, 4 November, the Nobel Committee will announce the laureates in physics, October 5 — in chemistry, 7 October, the winners of the peace prize, 13 Oct — according to the literature. In addition, on October 10 will be awarded prize in Economics in memory of Alfred Nobel — this award was established pursuant to the Bank of Sweden in 1969 and, although often referred to as the “Nobel prize in Economics”, in the full sense is not, as in the will of Alfred Nobel mentioned only five nominations.
Five original Nobel prizes awarded since 1901. The story of this awards is widely known and is somewhat reminiscent of the literary work. Very common on the version, decision on the establishment of Alfred Nobel was adopted after the newspaper was incorrectly published his own obituary (in 1888, the brother died of Nobel, Ludwig, however, many reporters decided that took the life of Alfred Nobel). From the obituaries followed, the engineer will remain in the memory of mankind, primarily as the inventor of dynamite. In one of the Newspapers Nobel even saw the headline “the Merchant of death is dead.” Not to go down in history as such, Alfred Nobel made the decision to rewrite his will. He is ordered to sell all his property, to place the capital in a reliable Bank, and the income from investments is equally divided into five parts, each of which is awarded in the form of premiums.
On the prestige of the Nobel prize is indirectly evidenced by the fact that it is often considered to be the best “compliment” to other awards. It is not just about the prize for Economics in memory of Alfred Nobel, but also, for example, about Belevskoe prize and the prize of fields, each of which is sometimes called the “Nobel prize for mathematics”, or international research award Shao, sometimes referred to as the “Nobel prize of the East” or “Asian Nobel prize”. Annually broad public attention attracts even the ceremony, essentially a spoof of the Nobel prize — the IG Nobel laureates announcement, or Ignobelevskoy awards for various curious researches.