Ukraine celebrate those we used to consider collaborators, accomplices of Hitler. No, tell us in Kiev, these people fought for Ukraine’s independence, they fought with the Bolsheviks, with Stalin’s regime… Where is the truth? Who were they criminals or heroes? To understand this, we will help the old Newspapers.
The Galicians meet the Nazis. Photo from the newspaper of the Ukrainian Nazi “Voice” from 20.08.1941. The caption: “met Ukrainians in Lviv by the German soldiers.”
September 1 in Russia and some other republics of the former USSR celebrated the Day of knowledge. In Ukraine this day is also considered festive. Students back at their desks, and the youngest of them first crossed the threshold of the school. Little children are like clay. From what is inherent in them by teachers depends not only their future professional success, but also a system of values, notions of good and evil. “What is good and what is bad?” is the first question the answer to which needs to give the child school.
New times, new heroes. This academic year pupils of 7-11 grades in the schools of Ukraine will study the work of the Ukrainian “pismennik”, and part-time Nazi collaborator during the Second world war by Ulas Samchuk. Until recently, the name of this writer was widely known only in narrow circles of the Ukrainian Diaspora in the USA and Canada. About the artistic merits of his works it is difficult to judge not knowing the Ukrainian language. However, the fact that Samchuk had the opportunity to freely publish them in the West (after the war he was about 40 years he lived in Canada), but nevertheless they have not attracted much attention of the international literary community speaks for itself. I think that if there was even the slightest chance to promote this hostile Soviet Union writer, it would certainly did. But the level of talent is not allowed Samchuk to be on a par with such stars of the literary emigration as Bunin, Solzhenitsyn or Brodsky.
But it is not the literary gift Samchuk or in his absence, and some juicy details of his biography. 75 years ago, September 1, 1941, occupied by the German Nazis, Exactly the first issue of the newspaper “Volyn” with a large portrait of Hitler on the front page. Editor-in-chief of this newspaper was the Ulas Samchuk, whose works will now be brought Ukrainian children. Being one of the leaders of the OUN (Organization of Ukrainian nationalists, banned in Russia), “pismennik arrived in Exactly a German convoy, consisting of the so-called’nikovskoe marching groups of OUN”. (Melnyk and Bandera — supporters respectively of Andrew Melnyk and Stepan Bandera, two competing all the way to the slaughter inside the wing of the OUN.) In the first issue of the newspaper in addition to a portrait of Hitler Samchuk placed a laudatory article in honor of the Fuhrer, as well as printed with your own portrait (which removes all doubt regarding his personal responsibility for the newspaper). After the liberation of the Ukraine by the Soviet troops, the future guru of today’s Ukrainian “patriots” had to leave “mother” and escape to Germany with the Nazis. Died in Canada at an advanced age in 1987.
What was a editable newspaper Samchuk “Volyn”?
— Almost every major city of Ukraine, which included the Germans, the divisions Goebbels ‘Propaganda-Staffel” the first thing I tried to start production of the collaborationist Newspapers, and to open society “Prosvita” (“Enlightenment”. — M. P.) for Ukrainianization of the local population and incitement to ethnic hatred, ” says historian and political analyst Vladimir Kornilov. — Their main goal was to drive a wedge between Ukrainians, Russians and, of course, Jews. As in the Central and especially the Russian-speaking Eastern Ukraine their collaborationist personnel of the invaders is clearly not enough, the Germans brought with them in carts from Germany and Galicia.
Vladimir Kornilov for several years engaged in the study of Newspapers published by the Nazi propagandists in the occupied territory during the war. This is a truly unique documents. Many materials show: the approval of the Kiev propaganda about the alleged struggle of the Ukrainian nationalists with the Nazis was untrue. Moreover, anyone familiar with these publications, it becomes clear that in fact the OUN with the Nazis worked closely.
— As soon as the Newspapers in the late 80’s was declassified and withdrawn from the depositories, I got into the archives and shoveled a mountain of Nazi Newspapers published during the occupation of my native region — Donbass, — says Vladimir. — I was a student. But then became interested in the close cooperation of Ukrainian nationalists and German Nazis, has written several scientific articles on the subject. Then the archives still had no copiers or scanners. Therefore, many materials are kept in my manuscript, rewritten, in the mass of notebooks. With the development of nationalist and neo-Nazi ideas in Ukraine, this topic has become more urgent than ever. Well, when I recognizable characters, appeared in the Nazi press as the most violent collaborators, began to openly glorified in Ukraine, I decided to go back to many of his records, and expanded the range of the studied press — now familiar not only Donbass, but also with Ukrainian specimens of Goebbels’s propaganda. What this will result in the end, don’t know yet. While this is just a project in the Internet dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the great Patriotic war. Each day of the war — a new publication in the collaborationist Newspapers. I’m trying to post them in chronological order and so hope to reach the day of liberation of Ukraine.
— The extent to which these publications were controlled by the Germans, and was the fruit of the initiative of the Ukrainian artists?
— Occupying all Newspapers were subject to heavy censorship in the Goebbels propaganda Department. The case was put on stream, each media were supervised in the field, and of the Central bodies of raspolaganju, every newspaper quickly and purposefully supplied the “typical” material glorifying Hitler and the power of German arms.
— Ukraine is now actively implanted the view that the Ukrainian nationalists during the war did not cooperate with Hitler, but rather fought on two fronts — against the Germans and the Reds.
— I can cite many examples of collaboration across the OUN and individual leaders of the Ukrainian nationalist movement against the Nazi regime. In most cases the editors of these papers and active authors were activists of the OUN, which brought the Germans occupied the town in their carts. I repeat: OUN not only fought with the German occupiers, and actively cooperated with them, being Ukrainian Department of Goebbels ‘ propaganda Department. And the details of the newspaper — another proof.
That is, the role distribution was as follows: Germans — customers, instigators, supervisors and censors. Artists — OUN: Bandera and Melnyk. In accordance with Nazi ideology, in every nation United under the strict supervision of the German Europe was destined to his own fate. Ukrainians, and other Slavs, were attributed by the ideologists of the Third Reich to the “inferior race”. In the future they waited for slave labor or death. Ukrainian cities were to be destroyed, and the empty lands of Ukraine inhabited by German farmers. The attitude of the Germans towards the Ukrainians as animals says at least the fact that the Ukrainian Ostarbeiter were subject to the death penalty for sexual contacts with the German population. Cars with these Ostarbeiter were already in Germany. In the occupied territories, carried out mass executions. However, the vigilance of the herd, driven to the slaughterhouse, were required to sedate and to create a semblance of a normal life. These goals and served published by the Ukrainian collaborators of the newspaper. There were many of these Newspapers.
The newspaper “Stryisky Visti” for September 4, 1941. This newspaper also published the Goebbels propaganda Department. It published the appeal of the OUN, which States that “soon the whole Ukraine will be freed from the bloody Moscow.” And ends the statement by saying: “Glory to the invincible German Army! Death to the hangmen of Ukraine! Glory To Ukraine! Glory to the heroes!”. From this publication it becomes clear how bravely the OUN was at war with Hitler.
One of the founders of the OUN, Osip Bednarowicz was during the occupation by the managing editor of the Nazi newspaper “Visti Lvivske”.
The newspaper “Stryisky Visti” for September 4, 1941.
September 3, 1941, the newspaper published the article titled “Come in, dear guests”. “Dear guests” is the German occupiers. The newspaper wrote about how joyfully greeted the Germans, Galicians, “Flags, flowers, triumphal arches welcomed in every village of the Ukrainian population to the heroic German army. Even though it was the busiest time of field work, in some localities, the villagers waited for hours guests from the West to tidy the streets below the Church. While waiting, took one of the family, were welcomed as dear brothers.” After that, overjoyed by the invaders, the population was taken allegedly for organizing a “Ukrainian police”, which “cleaned the village from bandits and the Jewish-Bolshevik elements, has stolen away the state property, collected the weapons and put at the disposal of the German authorities.” The struggle with Hitler’s Nazis!
— How actually met the Germans, the population of the Western regions of Ukraine? I asked Vladimir Kornilov.
— No region of the USSR occupied by the Germans, did not meet the Nazis so loud, so joyful and so gloriously as Galicia. And it is an indisputable fact! — says the analyst. — I often hear the offended cries of Galicia, saying that everywhere, were his collaborators. Yes, of course, were. But you won’t find in other regions any pictures of these solemn mass meetings of the Nazis, which were held in the towns and villages of Western Ukraine. Either in Poltava or in Mirgorod, nor in Zaporozhye, nor even in the Donbass, the Germans are not met. And by the way, in these regions, the local population staged violent pogroms, as did the Ukrainians in Lviv and other settlements in Galicia in June-July 1941. So we have to divide the Ukrainian and Galician collaboration — in its scope, value, ideological filling that was not quite identical phenomena. In addition, we must not forget that, in connection with the shortage of staff in the East the Germans were often brought there from Galicia collaborators.
— Contained in these papers calls for the physical extermination of the Russian Jews, poles, Gypsies, etc.?
— Well, say, in Nazi Newspapers in Germany you will not find direct appeals to the mass murders, the gas chambers and the extermination of entire peoples. However, German and Ukrainian Nazi press were unanimous in praise of the Aryan racial theory. In many Ukrainian (especially Galician) Newspapers you will find a lot of articles that emphasized the differences between Ukrainians and Russians, prove the idea of “the inferiority of Muscovites,” their “savagery” and “barbarism” — of course, in contrast, held the idea of “European integration” of Ukraine. Many of these abstracts you will find now in the modern Ukrainian press. Many articles expressed the pleasure of the Nazis solved “the Jewish question” in the occupied territories. And, of course, lacked the openly hateful remarks about poles.
— Can you talk about the manifestations of anti-Semitism in the Newspapers?
— If almost every room it was possible to read the words “Jew” or “Judeo-Bolshevism”, published cartoons depicting the Soviet leadership with “Jewish” noses, published ads, obliging Jews to wear identifying marks and subject to special regulations, is it then possible to doubt that it was an anti-Semitic newspaper?
It is worth emphasizing that these ideological, according to the current Kiev authorities, “fighters against Bolshevism fought not just against Bolshevism and “Jewish Bolshevism”, as it is written in virtually every issue of these Newspapers.
The same newspaper “Volyn”, published in Rivne and editable by the writer Ulas Samchuk, in September 1941, wrote: “All the elements that live in our cities, or Jews, or poles, should disappear. Jewish question in the moment is solved, and its solution will be part of the plan for the total reorganization of Europe.”
On 4 September 1941 the first issue of the newspaper “Visti Kamienski”. He went out in Dneprodzerzhinsk, renamed by the Nazis in Kamyanske. The title on front page reads: “the Ukrainian people should have firm faith in the Creator of a new Europe, Adolf Hitler; all this person is doing is appropriate and blessed by God.” This paper was supervised by Germans appointed by the mayor of the city, the Ukrainian nationalist Alexei Samoilenko. He later fled to the West and became a prominent figure of Ukrainian emigration under the name Olexa Kalinik. In 1953 he published in Munich book “Communism — enemy of mankind”, then lived in the United States, organized the Union of Ukrainian youth, and died in new York in 2001 at the age of 92 years.
The first issue of the newspaper “Volyn”. One is a portrait of Hitler and a photo editor of the newspaper by Ulas Samchuk. Now portraits Samchuk can be detected in the Ukrainian coins.
— What kollaboratsii organizations of that time were revived in Ukraine after it gained independence?
— Yes, almost all the names of those Ukrainian organizations that were used during the occupation years, was revived in the late 80’s-early 90-ies. Has the same “enlightenment” that has the same splits of Ukrainian youth (SUM), there were officially registered OUN — now party, and the name of the battalion fighting against Shakhtar. Perhaps, the only organization of those times, which is revived today in connection with its “untimely” name is the Union of Ukrainian fascists (which, incidentally, was one of the founders of the OUN). Instead, the modern Ukrainian Nazis created Social-national party (as you know, accord with the National socialist party and not by accident). However, later the party changed its name and became known as “Freedom.” Yes, the same “Freedom” by Oleg Tyagnyboka.
— What forces and characters now in Ukraine involved in writing “alternative” stories?
Ukraine in recent years is busy bleaching their collaborators and their glorification. Almost every historical and propaganda the establishment is now occupied by this task. But the head of this process, of course, is created under Yushchenko’s Institute of national remembrance. After the victory of Maidan is the institution headed outdoor apologist Bandera Volodymyr Vyatrovych, notorious in Ukraine in connection with pseudo-candid fakes on the topic of UPA and hunger of the 1930s.
— It is said that manuscripts do not burn. But I think if it is someone you really need, then burn just fine. Is there a danger of the destruction of Ukraine archive documents, revealing Bandera?
— You know, I have serious concerns about the fact that some “inconvenient” documents are already gone forever. Because Vyatrovych held the position of head of the SBU archive, which contains still nerassekrechennymi case of Nazi collaborators. But many documents are already digitized and available online, has sold to private collections and archives. Ukrainian Internet is simply Packed with these materials. The fact that modern Ukrainian nationalists have not only not ashamed of the fact that their ideological forerunners actively cooperated with Hitler’s Nazis, but very proud of it. If more recently they shared these documents with each other, tried not to publicize these facts, now in Ukraine about it openly publish books, produce TV shows, even post billboards and citylights (as in the case of the glorification of the SS division “Galicia”). So these manuscripts will not burn…
“Riot” on my knees
In the biography of Ulas Samchuk is one episode which, in the opinion of “svidomo” historians questioned the fact of his collaboration. In 1942, after the publication in the newspaper “Volyn” and “anti-German” articles “Twas ever thus”, Samchuk was arrested by the security service of SD and placed in the Rivne prison. A whole month (!) a future classic of Ukrainian literature languished in the dungeons, and then was released through the intercession of his longtime patron, a German Blum. This odd friendship between the future and a prominent functionary of the Reich and the Ukrainian guest workers (Samchuk one time worked in Germany, laborer) was born in 20 years, and the Blum sponsored the training of each University. In 1942, buddy Samchuk, how to write his biographers, he worked in Exactly in high office of the chief of the civil police of Reichskommissariat Ukraine. We can assume that the words “civil police” is indicated formed from the local population so-called auxiliary service of the order police. This “wonderful” in every sense of the police, led by buddy Samchuk, by that time it had to be noted in many iconic events. In particular, the destruction of the only to the end of autumn 1941, 150-200 thousand Jews in Ukraine. And to heap many Gypsies and Communists. This was a great one heroic fighter for the bright future of the Ukrainian people.
After the miraculous rescue from prison the brave Ukrainian dissident continued to serve the Germans. And then served in Germany with the occupying forces. Perhaps the famous article was not so “anti-German”? Samoukovic note that it was written in “Aesopian language”. The language was so Aesop that even vigilant German censorship did not immediately prosekli sedition. The Germans recovered only a week, destroying part of the already printed edition of the newspaper. Would consider a serious matter — the circulation would have been destroyed along with the author. But the special danger of this careful frond from the overall necessary and useful employee for them is not.
“Rebellion” Samchuk is simple. In early 1942, the Ukrainian collaborators experienced as a “big bummer”. It turned out that the German “liberators from the Jewish Bolshevik yoke” no Ukrainian state allow not going. Particularly brazen collaborators, the Nazis had begun to shoot. Including friends Samchuk. It could not be disturbed. Like other Ukrainian nationalists, he probably harbored illusions that I will be able to use the Germans to their advantage. But in fact he was used by the Germans, being with his newspaper a part of Goebbels propaganda machine.