The courage of a policeman Magomed Nurbagandov killed by militants in Dagestan, made a strong impression on the Russian society. And forced to remember that the situation of terrorist activity in Dagestan has sharply worsened, has a number of systemic reasons. There are reasons and the fact that heroes like Nurbagandov, often die in obscurity.
A major security operation against illegal armed groups, held in early September in Dagestan, became another confirmation of the fact that the problem of extremism in this country are far from over, despite a sharp reduction in the number of terrorist attacks. After a significant part of the underground went to fight in Syria, the extremists continued to grow, and not the last role in this can play the repressive methods of the security forces.
“The peak of insurgent activity now and then fixed on Thursday, on the eve of the most important for Muslims is the day of the week – Friday
The situation worsened with the arrival of autumn. September 4, Searscom forest on the border with Azerbaijan security forces clashed with a group of militants, resulting in losses suffered by both sides – killed one police officer and three members of illegal armed groups. On September 7, during a special operation in Makhachkala and Izberbash security forces have eliminated six people who participated in attacks on law enforcement officers, including one of the rebel leaders – Magomed Alimbekova. Shortly thereafter, in the Izberbash were detained two residents of Dagestan, suspected of involvement in the murder of a police officer Magomed Nurbagandov, who was shot dead by militants in early July. Before his death, he was asked to go on camera to his colleagues urging them to retire from law enforcement, but Nurbagandov refused, saying: “Serve, brethren.” Official representative of Russian Ministry of internal Affairs of Irina Volk has reported that the deceased officer to be posthumously nominated for the state award.
Recent events in Dagestan casts doubt on repeated assurances by authorities that the solution to the problem of extremism in the Republic achieved significant results. “Law enforcement is a power block for their decisive and courageous actions over the past three years greatly narrowed the problem of terrorism. And felt it all – from simple citizens and the business community to representatives of power structures of Republic”, – said, in particular, in mid-July, the head of Dagestan Ramazan Abdulatipov.
Mohammed Nurbagandov (photo: 05.MIA.of the Russian Federation)
From the point of view of the number of attacks positive dynamics is really undeniable. According to the portal “Caucasian knot”, for many years master of their own statistics of victims of clashes in the North Caucasus in the past year, the number of armed incidents in the country dropped from 91 to 57 cases, and the number of people killed in them – from 185 to 123. According to the same statistics, Dagestan continues to outstrip the number of deaths all other regions of the North Caucasus Federal district, but a major terrorist attack with a large number of civilian casualties was not here for quite some time.
The peak of rampant terrorism in Dagestan occurred in 2010-2012, when the target of extremists as security forces and ordinary citizens (for example, a double terrorist attack in Makhachkala on may 3, 2012 claimed the lives of 14 people) and are well known in the Republic of the people. Among the latter is the spiritual leader said-Afandi of Chirkey, journalists hadzhimurad Kamalov and has Ahmednabiev, press Secretary of the President of Dagestan Garun Kurbanov and others. A turning point in the fight against extremism was the elimination in February 2013, Ibrahim Gadzhidadaev, the leader of the so-called imriskova Jamaat, which was considered the most dangerous terrorist group in Dagestan. At the same time began the mass Exodus of members of illegal armed groups in the middle East – under the banner of the banned in Russia as ISIS*. According to the interior Ministry of Dagestan at the end of last year, to fight in Syria has left some 900 residents of the Republic.
To consider and factor in the reduced demand for the services of thugs corrupt officials. Shortly after the appointment of the head of Dagestan Ramazan Abdulatipov at the beginning of 2013, the country started large-scale anti-corruption campaign, which victims fell, some of the local “heavyweights”, for example, the mayor of Makhachkala said Amirov and head of the regional branch of the Pension Fund of the Russian sagid Murtazaliyev. They were charged with the “terrorist” articles of the criminal code, and in the case of Amirov it generally ended in a life sentence. According to the leadership of Dagestan, one of the results of the cleaning personnel was the reduction of criminal pressure on business. In particular, the head of the local Agency for business and investments Bashir Magomedov in a recent interview said that in Dagestan managed to remove the problem of so-called pleskavica racket, especially once flourished in Makhachkala. The essence of this “technology” was the fact that the business of Bouncing the flash card with stored requirements to pay a “tax Jihad,” after which the victims had to either be led by ransomware, or to leave the business.
“In war the attack is over the attack”
At the same time the report to Parliament by the end of 2015, the head of the Republican interior Minister Abdurashid Magomedov said that the number of registered crimes related to the organization of illegal armed groups and participation in them increased by 33% (679 vs 472 according to the portal of legal statistics of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation). And only seven months of this year of terrorism-related offences have already been identified 623.
At the same time increasing the number of people standing on the preventive account in police as potential members of illegal armed groups: according to data cited in the report Magomedov, from 17.2 to 20.5 million for all of last year. Around 5-6 thousand of them are related to extremist crimes – these figures were announced in late may during his visit to Dagestan members of the Council on human rights under the President of the Russian Federation. It profuchet became a target for critics of the interior Ministry of Dagestan, human rights defenders, which lead the numerous facts of violations of citizens ‘ rights, such as freedom of movement or religion. To travel outside their homes standing on the profuchet must obtain permission from the police and parishioners of some mosques (especially this well-known mosque on Hungarian fighters street in Makhachkala) on Fridays are regularly detained by the police “prevention”.
“Extremism is a manifestation of dissatisfaction with the government as the police and any other Executive, judicial, regional, or local, says noted Makhachkala, the lawyer Rasul Kadiev. – Russian government in relations with extremism and terrorism, and their supporters initially chose the tactic of not easy fighting crime with the application of criminological methods, and the path of war. However, the interior Ministry, responsible for the fight against extremism, is a party to the armed conflict. In war the attack is over the fire, and as this war lasts in Dagestan more than ten years, then there could not tell who started it and who is to blame in the sequel. The main mistake – in tactics: if you choose the path of war and not to leave the enemy nothing but armed resistance meaningless and long prison terms as the militants and their families, there is nothing surprising in the fact that the war continues. The interior Ministry has become hostage to this war: they killed, they killed, becoming murderers. They left for the sake of the fight against thefts and other crimes.”
According to a senior researcher of the Center for Caucasus and regional security MGIMO-University Nikolai Silayev, theme profuchet is another example of how difficult it is to build a balance between civil rights and political freedoms on the one hand and security on the other. “A practice in which all members of certain mosques on Friday to take on the fingerprinting, when people suspected location, an armed underground, take the material for genetic identification, do violate human rights, it is not necessary to argue – says Silaev. But this same practice for several years allows the police and the FSB quickly uncover terrorist crimes. Note how quickly established the identity of the suicide bombers in recent attacks, which were suicide (2013). I believe this happened also thanks to the very tight control over the environment in which police believe the suspect”.
You can also add that Russian security forces in this case are not “invent the wheel” – on a similar scheme, there are intelligence agencies in Israel, where in recent years terrorism has made significant progress.
Inheritance of Dagestan “Cattani”
Adilgerey Magomedtagirov (photo: Sergey Rasulov/RIA Novosti)
First in Dagestan, who was openly preaching a very tough principles against extremists, became Adilgerey Magomedtagirov, who headed the Republican Ministry of internal Affairs in 1998. The struggle with the Wahhabis had for him not only the service but also religious motivation: Magomedtagirov was one of the mureeds (followers) of Sheikh said-Afandi of Chirkey. The intransigence and rigidity of the used methods it was compared to the main character of the cult of the Italian TV series “octopus” Commissioner Cattani, and, as in the case of Poirot’s life was tragically cut short Magomedtagirov in June 2009, the Minister was killed by sniper shots at the entrance to the Banquet hall on the outskirts of Makhachkala. The customer of this crime is considered Ibrahim by gadzhidadayev, and performer – a former serviceman Andrei Rezanov, who received 15 years of a colony of a strict mode.
The new Minister of internal Affairs of Dagestan was appointed a native of the structures of the FSB, Ali Magomedov. But he stayed in this position for just over a year and left his post after criticism from the new President of Dagestan Magomedsalam Magomedov, who has put the Minister on the surge of terrorist activity and General inefficiencies. In its place came Abdurashid Magomedov, members of team Adilgerey Magomedtagirov (before his appointment as Minister, he was chief of the investigative Department of the MIA of Dagestan), and today he is the main “survivor” among his colleagues in the subjects of the North Caucasus, successfully emerging from a mass rotation of regional chief administrations of the MVD after the appointment of the head of this Department Vladimir Kolokoltseva. However, in contrast to the charismatic Magomedtagirov, the current Minister of internal Affairs of Dagestan has never been considered a figure of great political weight. Two years ago in Makhachkala, Dagestan weekly “Draft” – one of the most influential independent media outlets in Dagestan Magomedov put only 17-th place in the ranking of the most influential politicians in Dagestan, noting that it is too low the position, taking into account the capabilities of the security forces in the Republic.
The Abdurashid Magomedov (photo: 05.MIA.of the Russian Federation)
But this fact did not contribute to the change of the manner in which the police acted in Dagestan. Moreover, these methods have become even tougher once the main Department of the MIA for the NCFD was headed by Colonel-General Sergei Chenchik, before the last two Chechen campaigns and personally led several operations against militants, including in Dagestan. At the same time grew and the scale of extremist activity: if Adilgerey Magomedtagirov shortly before his death claimed that the number of subversive underground in Dagestan is “the most somewhere between 50 and 70 people”, then after a few years the expense of the extremists (real and potential) have gone to hundreds, and the geography of their activities has expanded considerably. For example, in the last couple of years the armed underground has been significantly intensified in southern Dagestan, a relatively quiet first part of the Republic. The recent clash in Searscom the woods – this is the fourth, according to estimates “Caucasian knot”, the same episode with the beginning of the year on the territory of the southern Dagestan, magaramkentskogo district. There are incidents of extremist activity in neighboring Suleyman-Stalsky district, “the birthplace” ex-Prosecutor of Dagestan of Imam Yaraliev, where the situation with extremism until some time in General was considered exemplary.
“Terrorist base” again played
“The Dagestani police have been the victims of terrorist attacks, which the authorities refused to acknowledge the attacks, so the relatives of the victims have not received compensation provisions”
“In 2014-2015 was indeed a significant decline in the activity of militants,” says Rasul Kadiev. But the representatives of the National anti-terrorist Committee confirmed that the destruction of last year’s 96 fighters did not break the underground, as in Dagestan there is a “posobnitsey base. And if to compare statistics of the General Prosecutor’s office and statements by security officials on the number of insurgents killed, it immediately becomes clear that the “base” is again reproduced, in Dagestan there is a revival of the terrorist system.” According to kadieva, you can even talk about the identical “handwriting” of the underground during the last spike in 2009-2012 and eight months of the current year. For example, the peak activity of the militants then and now is fixed on Thursday, on the eve of the most important for Muslims is the day of the week – Friday.
The hypothesis of a “fresh call” to the ranks of extremists is confirmed by the data on the militants, liquidated or detained during recent operations. Aziz Dzamalutdinov and Arthur Bekbolatova parties to the murder of Magomed Nurbagandov detained in Izberbash, just 20 years old. Their slain accomplice, Amalambika Bogatyrova was 24 years old, and by this time he was already convicted of aiding the militants. Liquidated leader izberbashsky grouping Magomed Alimbekova shortly before his death turned 32.
Biography Alimbekova generally illustrates the path of turning common criminals into extremists: served time under article for robbery in prison, he met with Abdulhasan by Abdulhalikov – the leader of the group, which operated in the village of Novy Khushet near Makhachkala. After the release of the first Khalimbekov is on the profuchet in category “Wahhabism”, a year ago it announced online search, and after the elimination Abdulhalikov he becomes the leader of the militants. There is no doubt that to replace him soon become the new “Amir”. In the same way the situation developed in southern Dagestan, where just three months ago, was eliminated 39-year-old Hasan Abdullayev (Abu Yasser), sworn LIH, but his place was immediately occupied by a certain Murad Shamsutdinov, destroyed during the battle in Searscom forest.
All these facts remind one of the infamous Stalin’s theory about the rise of the class struggle as the building of socialism. The interior Ministry of Dagestan is constantly expanding the circle of residents covered preventive account, conducts regular security operation against militants, invariably ending in their liquidation, but to stop the flow, constantly replenishing the ranks of extremists, these measures are clearly not. What in this case is prevention of extremism, it is not clear – but clearly comes into force the principle of “action-reaction.
“Few could have expected such bravery”
The last of the special operation against militants in Dagestan coincided with a series of scandals in the interior Ministry. Last week, the FSB officers on suspicion of extortion was arrested the chief of criminal investigation Department of the city of Khasavyurt Rasul saaduev (one of the most notorious police officers of Dagestan and the Deputy chief of criminal investigation Department of the regional interior Ministry Gimbat of Lahiyalov. Criminal case in their relation to some commentators immediately linked with the notorious “gang of Robin hoods,” organized by the former head of the Kizilyurt police Department, Asabali by Zaurbekova, who is also accused of extortion.
But there is another version associated with struggle of interest groups in the leadership of Dagestan. Rasul saaduev is considered to be a person who is very close to the Saigidpasha Umahanov, former mayor of Khasavyurt, who led the largest Caucasian city market for nearly two decades. Last year Umakhanov pressure Makhachkala resigned as mayor in exchange for less status (in the Dagestan standards) the office of the Minister of transport, energy and communications in the national government. It immediately exacerbated the struggle for “bread place” – as well as in the elimination of Makhachkala said Amirov powerful does not lead to resolving many of the chronic problems of the city. The monstrous growth in average standards of unauthorized building and abominable sanitary condition of the city remain the realities of the Dagestan capital.
The aggravation of hardware fighting may occur and to head the interior Ministry in Dagestan, given the long tenure of some of its leaders. However, once in may, Sergey Chenchik, he was appointed first Deputy Director of Regardie, the situation in the Dagestani Directorate of the police can change for the better. Some time ago in Dagestan discussed option care Abdurashid Magomedov in the state Duma, but the “unsinkable” Minister retained his post, although the story of the arrest of two of his subordinates casts serious doubts on his Department.
In this context, the feat policeman Magomed Nurbagandov seems a timely reminder that the Ministry of internal Affairs of Dagestan may be associated not only with corruption, special operations and the notorious profuchet. Now on the portal Change.org is collecting signatures for the appropriation of Nurbagandov the title of Hero of Russia posthumously. Among the speakers in support of it – not only the residents of Dagestan and other republics of the North Caucasus and the “Russian” regions of the country. The circumstances of the death Nurbagandov touched the hearts of many government officials. “I have several times watched this video – wrote on his page in “Facebook” the head of Ingushetia, Yunus-Bek Yevkurov. – Few people could expect such courage from the appearance of the puny young man. He does not show fear, knowing that he would be killed, and standing up to his enemies. “Work, brethren!” his last words, a Testament to my colleagues. This is a real feat! Unlikely terrorists could get more emotional force impact – this guy is worthy of taking the death, defending the honor of the uniform of the police.”
At the same time, we must not forget that the circumstances of the death of Magomed Nurbagandov became public by accident (video of the shot police officer was in the phone of one of the members of his murder). “Dagestani police officers killed by bandits everywhere – at office, at home, on the way home; they were shot, blown up and slaughtered. They became victims of terrorist attacks, which the authorities refused to acknowledge the attacks, and therefore relatives of the victims have not received the required compensation,” recalls Rasul Kadiev. According to him, the story of Mahomed Nurbagandov different from other similar subjects only to those that have found evidence of the courage that showed other police officers who died at his post. “It is a trump card in the propaganda of the fight against extremism, but at the same time and the evidence of a large problem: the police and other security officials in Dagestan continue to kill,” – emphasizes the lawyer of Makhachkala.
* Organization in respect of which the court accepted entered into legal force decision on liquidation or ban the activities on the grounds stipulated by the Federal law “On countering extremist activity”