In 1802 a special decree for the whole of 200 versts around Moscow banned the operation of factories, distilleries, glass factories and forges for the sake of nature and animals. In 1935 the government of the young Soviet Republic, recognizing the importance of green spaces for maintaining the health of citizens during the adoption of the General Plan of reconstruction of Moscow, identified the so-called forest-Park protective belt of the capital (LPSP) with a width of 10 kilometers.
Photo: Oleg Of Koldaev
The city has evolved, and those forests have long been part of urban green spaces. In 1960, the area LPSP now around the new boundaries were to 172,5 thousand hectares, and in our time, specialists did not even know how much greenery left in and around the city limits. According to various sources, is between 19 and 24 thousand hectares. Environmental problems of the metropolis at the moment, rise sharply, and to solve them, June 17, 2016, the State Duma adopted the law №353-FZ on the establishment of “green belts” around cities, which will enter into force on 1 January 2017. But the Moscow United Russia has started large-scale training to make the law fully operational from day one.
— We started working now, because when the law will come into force, we have to be ready for it, ” says Nikolai Gonchar, Secretary of the Moscow city party organization “United Russia”. — A lot of questions, more than answers. The law will come into force, and we must know what we’re doing the second, the twelfth of January, and on, and maybe taking into account this preparatory period we will be preparing some clarification of this law. We now very actively work with really enthusiastic people, a good “move” on the environment, and their feedback is very important and, therefore, to this opinion the government should be taken very seriously. And after September 18, our work will not end. The environmental situation we have now is extraordinary, and, from my point of view, we had to make the law much earlier. In addressing this important issue needs to participate effectively is another side of Moscow region. They have in this case is quite specific, including economic, interests. We must work together to find a solution to these issues.
On a deep belief of the representatives of the Moscow branch of the party “United Russia” in the formation of the list of territories that will be included in “green belt” capital, needs the active participation to make the Muscovites themselves. Two weeks on the website of the party, where everyone could leave the application had over 3000 hits. Muscovites want the security status “green belt” has received not only the territory around the city, but many of the objects inside the MKAD. Its members may include not only forest areas, but also grasslands and riparian areas.
According to the law, all initiatives on the creation of grassland areas will be collected, synthesized and received as of the petition in the public chamber of the regions or of the Public chamber of the Russian Federation, not later than 30 days hold a public hearing and will forward the application to the Governor or to the Government.
— In Moscow all the initiatives we process and will go out with them to the Department of natural resources and the environment, we will prepare a report for the mayor of Moscow Sergey Semenovich Sobyanin that the Moscow government has supported our proposals, — said the Deputy of the Moscow city Duma Zoya Zotova.
To understand what challenges lie ahead in creating a “green belt”, the United Russia party turn to the experts. At numerous meetings of the working group, which took place in the Park “Kuzminki-Lublin”, Bitsa Park, Golubinskaja forests, was attended by representatives of initiative groups of the Muscovites, and expert in the environmental community. One of such meetings took place on 5 September at the Directorate of natural areas “Bittsevsky wood”.
At this meeting, his offer was made by the initiative group of the district of Teply Stan, proposing to include in the green belt site adjacent to Bitza forest. Their proposal was warmly supported by experts.
— For our natural areas is very important “corridor system” to the forest (Bitsevsky Park, Kuzminki, “elk Island”) had a relationship with suburban forests, and that this relationship is not lost. It is very important for land animals that need to refresh their blood.” Flying birds anyway. They can fly. And if not corridors, our squirrels or Martens can degenerate. Therefore, this forest belt is very important to have viable offspring animals, — said the head of the Department of biodiversity monitoring and environmental education of the Directorate of natural areas “Bitsevsky forest” HPBW “Mospeada” Tetyana Lunyova.
On September 7, the meeting was held in the EcoCentre on Vorobyovy hills. Were made by the representatives of several districts of the city.
— Employees Mospeada on an ongoing basis survey in the parks and natural areas, — said the representative of the initiative group, head of the environmental education activities of the Directorate of the natural area “Kuzminki-Lublin” Osip Tuminski. — As soon as it became aware of the creation of a “green belt”, we in this survey added a few questions on this topic. If you announce the main thesis of the proposal, residents often say and ask: to create a forest in the forest areas, including the school of forestry, where could have the guys from the surrounding schools. Today’s youth are not indifferent to environmental issues. We often come to high school students who don’t know what to do with myself. We came up with a form, as “green patrols”. Give children clipboards, radios and bicycles, and they convey information about the fires on garbage heaps. Also, residents are asked to revive the kennels; to organize separate collection and delivery of debris of the holiday villages, which fall in the green belt; create public councils in the forest zones. This is the most common request from residents of the South-East of Moscow. We will give the petition for the constituency of the working group.
— Eastern suburbs — one of the greenest in Moscow. We want to in the future was not a technocratic city and green garden, comfortable life, good environment, — said Denis Aksenov, the leader of the youth chamber of the district Perovo. — Therefore the creation of a “green belt” — a very topical task. If we talk about Ecopetrol. In Izmailovo Park, for example, a very alarming situation: people do not think about the consequences of lighting fires, don’t leave litter. We joined this program, because Moscow can be an example for other regions with bad ecological situation. The more we plant for big cities, the better for humanity. Here it is necessary to involve specialists in the forest. There are whole institutes and departments that are working on greening urban areas. “Green belt” should become a recognizable brand. And we are ready to take on the challenge to promote a brand, create and place PSAs on environmental issues in social networks and the electronic media. We believe it is necessary to massively attract young people to solve these problems, because very many young people really care about the environmental issues.
These are just a few of the initiatives are extremely interested in the preservation of each and every Bush and tree in the city and around it. The law No. 353-FZ gives us all hope that Moscow will soon turn into a concrete desert, built skyscrapers conventionally, gentrification, is absolutely inaccessible to 99% of Muscovites, and shopping centers. Conventionally, an elite because people with incomes at which the housing is designed, just do not want to live in it. The document prohibits to place in the forested “green belt” waste and harmful productions, as well as to capital construction (except for linear recreational, social and sports facilities.
The decrease in the forested “green belt” is not allowed. In case if some part of it will still be seized, the law obliges to amend the zone of the new area, similar in size and purpose. But if part of the forest will have to cut down, at the same place during the year should be carried out reforestation work.
The law also introduces administrative penalties for violation of implementation of activities in the forest of the green belt. In accordance with the law, the violation of the procedures for cutting in the green belt would provide for a fine for citizens in amount of five thousand rubles. For officials and individual entrepreneurs it will be from 20 thousand to 40 thousand rubles. Legal entities would face fines from 250 thousand to 500 thousand rubles or administrative suspension of activity for up to 90 days.
To control the state and the preservation of “green belts” will be created the Institute of public environmental inspectors. They will monitor the violations in these zones and report them to the relevant authorities.