Addressed to Moscow the request of the Baltic States to compensate them for the years of “Soviet occupation” is so absurd that it condemned even the Prime Minister of Estonia, finding “illogical”. With him is debatable, the logic is there: the de-occupation (i.e., exit from the USSR) cost the Baltic States is much more expensive than “occupation”.
A joint demand of the justice Ministers of the three Baltic republics to Russia on compensation for the years of “Soviet occupation” illustrates to what heights of absurdity can bring the artificial, in favor of political interests, constructing their own history. Literally, in accordance with an anecdote: “Eastern barbarians retreated, leaving behind a power station, hospitals, schools, corporate campuses”.
“Losses in the post-Soviet transformation of the early 90s, experts describe these figures: 35% economic decline in Estonia, 49% in Lithuania and 52% in Latvia”
The reaction of Russian politicians, who promised in response, “from a dead donkey ears”, in this sense natural. But the lack of reaction from historians alarming. After all, our Baltic partners with their persistent demands apparently do not fully aware of the consequences of their actions, raise historical questions that require comprehension and in the Baltic States and in Russia.
The Baltic States between the Soviets and the Soviets
The modern official historiography of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania regards the entry of these States into the USSR in 1940 as occupation. Thus, the fact that Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic declared elected parliaments of those countries and they asked about joining the Union, swept aside in principle. First, because the elections in all three countries took place with the presence on their territories of the Soviet military bases. Secondly, because the elections were won by Pro-Communist units. Where, they say, in a prosperous European Baltic States as Communists, where do they get such support? It is clear that the election was rigged by Moscow’s official point of view of modern Baltic ruling elite.
But remember the story. The slogan “power to the Soviets!” was publicly announced in the Baltic States, even earlier than Petrograd.
The territory of modern Estonia was approximately the same Revel of Estonia or province of the Russian Empire (southern Estonia and Northern Latvia was part of the Livonian governorate). The Soviets of workers, landless and army of deputies emerged from the February revolution. By the autumn of 1917, the provincial Councils had developed a structure, major organizational capabilities and played a significant role in political life.
The requirement for the transfer of power to the Soviets was publicly announced here in September 1917 Revel the Council, the Councils of Latvia and the 2nd Congress of Soviets of Estonia.
October 22 (November 4 new style), when the Executive Committee of the Soviets of Estonia was created the military revolutionary Committee, an organ of the leadership of the armed uprising. 23 October (5 November), earlier than in Petrograd, he had taken control of all strategically important points, than to provide a quick and bloodless regime change.
The popularity of local Bolsheviks indicate the following figures: in the autumn of 1917 RSDLP(b) was the largest party in Estonia, numbering more than 10 thousand members. The Constituent Assembly elections in Estonia gave the Bolsheviks 40.4 percent of the vote against 22.5 cast for the national party – Estonian democratic party and the Estonian Association of landowners.
The Executive Committee of the Soviets of workers’, soldiers’, and landless deputies of Latvia (Iskolat) took power into their own hands 8-9 November, new style. About the alignment of forces in the region show the results of the elections to the Constituent Assembly in the region of Vidzeme. The Bolsheviks received 72% of votes, others, including the national party 22.9 per cent.
It should be noted that part of Latvia was at that time occupied by Germany. Lithuania, or rather Vilna province, part of the territory which is today a part of Belarus, part of – part of Lithuania was occupied by Germany completely. Revolutionary events took place here later, in 1918, but was suppressed by German and Polish troops. But there is no reason to believe that the public mood in the occupied territories was fundamentally different. It should be recognized: the Estonian, Lithuanian and Latvian Bolsheviks were numerous and were in regions of very substantial support.
And, the closing question about where in the Baltic countries took many supporters of socialism, we note that it was the Estonian, Lithuanian and Latvian Bolsheviks, and not some emissaries from Petrograd.
Where did they go after? In February 1918, after the breakdown of the next round of negotiations of the Brest peace, the German troops launched an offensive on the Eastern front. By 22 February they had occupied the territory of Livonia and Courland provinces. The Soviets were destroyed. In March-April, 1918, these territories were formed the Duchy of Courland and Livonia. They were subsequently United Germany in the Baltic Duchy. July 11, 1918 announced the establishment of the Kingdom of Lithuania, to the throne which was erected by the German Prince Wilhelm von Urach.
Later, in November 1918, in connection with the defeat of Germany in world war I, was signed the armistice of Compiegne, which, among other things, provides for the conservation in the Baltic States German occupation forces in order to prevent here the restoration of Soviet power. Such recovery was possible only in 1940.
“Uninterrupted continuity” of the Baltic democracies
How much money is spent on the Soviet Union to the aid of others, straning modern Baltic historiography is generally accepted that “the electoral campaign in the Republic, organized by the “Moscow scenario,” violated the democratic guarantees of the constitutions of the sovereign Baltic States that the elections were unfair, undemocratic” (quoted by historian Michael Rutkowski).
The head of the Ministry of justice of Estonia Urmas Reinsalu, commenting on the recent joint Declaration of the Ministers of the three countries for compensation from Russia, said: “the Continuous succession of the Baltic States allows us to impose such a requirement”. You should study this question – who erected the “uninterrupted continuity” of modern Baltic democracy?
In Estonia in the 30-ies of the established nationalist dictatorship of Konstantin pats, parties were banned, Parliament did not intend that political opponents were persecuted by the police, was created “camps for social parasites”. In Latvia in the 30s, established a fascist dictatorship of Karlis Ulmanis. Political parties were banned, Newspapers closed, Parliament is dissolved, the Communists, of those who do not have time to go into hiding, were arrested. Since 1926 on the territory of Lithuania to establish the dictatorship of Antanas Smetona. The leaders of the Communist party was shot, the socialists were persecuted and went into hiding.
Dictatorship in the Baltic States existed until 1940, when the ultimate requirement of the USSR, was discontinued persecution of political parties allowed to elections, won by Pro-Soviet, Pro-Communist forces.
The issue of “continuous succession” of modern authorities of the Baltic States, thus, can hardly be considered finally closed. As the question of the “Soviet occupation”, given that the Soviet Republic was established here still first.
The socio-economic situation of the Baltic States in the interwar period
What are the achievements of socio-economic development could boast of independence of the Baltic States in the interwar (between the First and Second world wars period? Here are just a few facts:
By 1938, the factory industry of Latvia was 56% from level of 1913. The number of workers fell by more than half of the prewar level.
In 1930, in the industry of Estonia was occupied by 17.5% of the workforce in Latvia – 13.5%, in Lithuania – 6%.
On the background of de-industrialization is almost not reduced, the share of the population occupied in agriculture – contrary to the European trends. In 1922, in Estonia the share of rural population accounted for 71,6%, in 1940 – 66,2%. Similar dynamics is characteristic of Lithuania. In the countries there is a “ruralization” of the economy and archaization of life.
Against this background unfolded the real Exodus abroad of residents seeking a better life, earnings, not finding his forces in the economy of the Baltic countries. From 1919 to 1940 from Lithuania emigrated to the United States, Brazil, Argentina about 100 thousand people. Reminds me the times of new independence, isn’t it?
To claim compensation?
After the war, the Estonian, the Soviet Union was the first or one of the first places in the Soviet Union by the volume of investments in fixed capital per capita. In the Republic are actively developing such high-tech industries like electro – and radio engineering industry, instrument-making, ship repair. Chemical industry of its own raw materials (oil shale, the supply of which was provided by the mining industry) has produced a wide range of products – from mineral fertilizers, antiseptics and detergents. On the territory of the Republic, was built the largest in the world operating on the local shales of the Baltic and Estonian TPP, which fully meet the needs of the Republic.
The population of the Estonian SSR was 1565 thousand. The population of the Estonian Republic – 1313 thousand.
The Latvian SSR became industrialized area, was one of the leading among the Soviet republics of locations for the production of national income per capita. Here is a small list of goods, which production was established in the Republic and which were delivered in the regions of the Union, and for export: passenger cars, streetcars, diesels and diesel generators, telephone exchanges and telephone sets, refrigerators, radios, washing machines, mopeds and so on.
The population of the Latvian SSR was 2666 million people. The modern population of the Republic of Latvia – 1976 thousand.
The Lithuanian SSR in 1990, GDP per capita was ranked 39th in the world. The country operated instrument making, machine tool manufacturing, electrical and radio centers, production of electronics. Developed shipbuilding, machine building, chemical industry. The electric power industry of the Lithuanian SSR, except for the thermal stations was provided by the Ignalina nuclear station that was shut down in 2009 at the request of the EU.
The population of the Lithuanian SSR was 3689 thousand. Modern Republic of Lithuania – 2898 thousand.
Since independence the share of industry in the Baltic countries fell from 23 to 26 (according to different estimates) per cent of GDP in 1995 to 14-20 percent in 2008. the Share of transport and communication with 11 to 15% in 1995 to 10-13% in 2008, and even the share of agriculture and fishing – with 6-11% in 1995 to 3-4% in 2008. And this is considering that 1995 itself is remarkable only in that this year of radical transformation (“de-Sovietization”) was basically completed, the privatization carried out and the state had applied for accession to the EU.
Losses during post-Soviet transformation of the early 90s, experts describe these figures: 35% economic decline in Estonia, 49% in Lithuania and 52% in Latvia.
Against this background, involuntarily will begin to seek additional sources of income. Albeit in the form of compensation.