30 years ago, Gorbachev announced perestroika – the words that “we continue to lead the business,” depends largely on “the historical fate of the country and the position of socialism in the world.” Despite a willingness to change and the credibility of the government, the restructuring led to the collapse of the country and socialism. To answer the question of why it happened, the future of our country is significantly reduced.
23 APR 1985, elected a month and a half before the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Mikhail Gorbachev spoke at the Plenum of the Central Committee – the highest authority of the country at the time. The report of the Secretary General was called On convening the next, the 27 th Congress of the CPSU and the tasks associated with its preparation and holding” – but in fact it was the first keynote speech, obosnovyvaetsya the need for reform in the Soviet Union.
“The Secretary-General just had to think about how he is going to manage a huge country in an era of change”
To say that it was unexpected, not – as in the nation and various strata of Soviet society was well aware of the need for major changes. Another thing that has not been a unified understanding of what it is. But there was a General sense of loss of dynamics of development of the game.
The continuous growth of living standards in the postwar period led to the fact that people are not corny enough for everything from quality clothing to new cars. The Soviet planned economy is slow to respond to changes in demand. Of particular irritation is the lack of abundance, of course, caused primarily those who could compare with the situation abroad. It was not so little a part of society, given that it included not only diplomats or dealing with foreign officials, but also military contingents in the socialist countries, and tourists, quite massively traveled to Eastern Europe, and civil and military experts working in third-world countries. Does not work with communism – so let’s at least sausage with jeans: some look so claim a small but active part of the Soviet society, a large proportion of which were concentrated in the capital.
To prove her party can’t wait for the arguments about unemployment, which we have not, and there is “man is a wolf” is not perceived by the unsatisfied users. Besides, who would tell them about Soviet values in the same Moscow in the Komsomol, more weight gained future “Komsomolskaya oligarchs,” i.e., youth who did not believe in any values, except for the material.
The ideological atmosphere in the party was stuffy – because of how entrenched dogmatic interpretation of Marxism and the rejection of his creative development, and leaching the average party-level ideological Communists with opportunists and careerists. Yes, they made up a significant minority in the total weight of the item – but it is their behavior, coupled with the open cynicism of the representatives of the “shadow economy” (which appeared on the light in the 70-ies) that flourished primarily in the capital and southern national republics, gave rise to the nomenclature as “presumptuous and detached”.
The foreign policy situation was certainly tense. The confrontation with America, the arms race, the sixth year was the war in Afghanistan. The country was not of the mindset nor the conflict with the United States, any rapprochement with the West – competition was seen as a given. People were proud of the fact that the country became one of two world leaders, was upset about the fact that we lag behind the US in standard of living.
But if we’re talking still about some of the main expectation of most people, it can be described simply: it is necessary to restore order. In running, in work, in life – including through the purge, because in many regions of power were clans, developed over twenty years of continuous leadership of one of the first Secretary. Order was waiting for Andropov, but he soon died, and now it is expected of Gorbachev.
That order must be achieved as a result of reforms, too, was uncontroversial. So the new Secretary General had a huge credit of trust. And 23 April, he suggested his plan which then will be called restructuring, although most of the speeches at the Plenum Gorbachev all three times I used that word as a slogan.
The main pathos of his speech was to ensure that the Soviet Union is developing slowly, and we need to speed up rebuilding all the management of the economy. And qualitative, rather than quantitative changes – the transfer of the economy to intensive growth by increasing productivity to the highest global level and a radical acceleration of scientific and technical progress. The technological revolution actually served then Gorbachev as the main task – “we are talking essentially about the re-equipment of all industries of national economy on the basis of modern achievements of science and technology”.
And restructuring – as a change in the system of economic management. And enterprises themselves – “we Now became clearer the concept of the restructuring of the economic mechanism… we must boldly move forward towards the empowerment of enterprises, their autonomy, to introduce economic calculation, and on this basis to increase the responsibility and interest of labor collectives in the final results of the work. And governing bodies “Should start the practical restructuring of the work and the upper echelons of business management, to focus them primarily on the decision of prospective socio-economic and scientific-technical problems”.
“The historical fate of the country, the position of socialism in the modern world largely depends on how we continue to lead the business – has raised the bar Gorbachev. – Widely using the achievements of scientific and technological revolution, bringing the forms of socialist economy in compliance with modern conditions and needs, we need to achieve a significant acceleration of socio-economic progress. There is no other way…”
Really it’s all quite reasonable, especially given the fact that the higher meaning of accelerating socio-economic development of the country,” Gorbachev declared “steadily, step by step to improve the welfare of the people, to improve all aspects of the life of the Soviet people, to create favorable conditions for the harmonious development of personality”.
Do not get anything – neither to hasten nor to create or even save. None of the Soviet of people listening to or reading the report of the Secretary General, could not have imagined then that just six years from either the country or its social system will not be one stone left on stone. Doubtless his personal huge fault in the incident. Possessing all the power, he had no clear plan of action or at least will in the conduct of the course. Although a course could be the one who was neither a Marxist nor Imperial, neither nationalist nor even a tough pragmatist-realist?
The lack of strategic vision he replaced tactical shy, human play, and to struggle for personal political survival. Instead of the promised economic reforms, with emphasis on the scientific and technical revolution it started at the same time, and then moving it in the first place, political reform, opened the ideological debate about the past and future, stimulate ethnic conflicts and General chaos in the minds and hearts.
But the main thing – it is completely unbalance the whole system of governance and economy. Through the endless replacement of heads of regions, ministries and enterprises (which are at the election of the Directors of the teams), the redistribution of powers between different levels of government through the rapid and suicidal weakening of the role of the CPSU as the supporting backbone of the entire power vertical.
In four years, by the end of ‘ 89, Gorbachev managed not only to mislead the entire managerial elite, but also cause confusion and vacillation in the national outskirts, to give rise to serious concerns about the impending restoration of capitalism in most and hope for the free market is the minority, to undermine the Soviet position in Eastern Europe and to condemn to the disappearance of the socialist community – in this case on the basis of the good intentions. Even in China his arrival in the spring of 1989 symbolically coincided with the main challenge for Chinese reform – unrest in Tiananmen square, becoming them an additional catalyst.
After meeting in Beijing with Gorbachev, Deng Xiaoping described it to his companions short and obscene word describing the mental faculties of the Soviet leader – and it was not anything from the Chinese disdain for foreigners. Just an old experienced Chinese surprised not only, to put it mildly, naive Gorbachev on foreign policy, but his approach to reform – because Dan has decided, then the task of accelerating the development of the country quite different methods.
China started the reforms a few years ahead of Gorbachev in the late 70’s and started with far worse position than the Soviet Union. By the end of the 70s China, it is equally difficult to manage as the Soviet Union, came with even more rigid planned economy and ideological system, with a completely outdated industry and a much lower standard of living. On top of that China just a few years before that came out of decades of destructive cultural revolution. And what is the result? Gorbachev’s reforms failed, and China made a fantastic rise for a third of a century becoming the first economy in the world and power exercising global economic expansion.
No special hard-working Chinese no – Russian people if necessary can work as smoothly and productive. The Chinese just got lucky with a reformer – Dan without words began to carry out land reform, and to create industry attracted foreign investments in the designated economic zone, creating a joint venture under strict party control. It is not that Gorbachev had to develop their own special economic zones or start with reforms in rural areas, to go the Chinese way – our Secretary just had to think about how he is going to manage a huge country in an era of change. Not even to mention the fact that he had no plan of reform – how to manage just 11 time zones, with dozens of people, if to break the existing vertical of power?
Of course, he didn’t think that breaks it is just reforming, rebuilding. But by the end of 1989 it became clear that he was losing support in the party – and then he decided to shift the center of gravity of power from the party in the Soviet structure, and later on he created the institution of the presidency: that is cared about their own power, not about governing the country.
Gorbachev has always kept it real and we – and eventually brought the country until August 1991, when his deluded companions tried to save the country from the virtual elimination of threatening her with the signing of the new Federal, and in fact a Confederate of the contract. Yes, Gorbachev did not formally kill the USSR – Yeltsin did – but in fact he did everything to make it happen. Yes, technically he did not renounce socialism – it happened at the same Yeltsin – but it prepared the ground for someone to come Burbulis and Gaidar.
The defeat of Gorbachev the reformer was not only the worst failure of Russia’s rulers in its history – it led to catastrophic results for the whole country. The bills of the “reforms” we pay so far – and will pay for a long time, starting from the Donbass bomb and ending the social injustice inherent in the Foundation of our public system. But the main lesson from the experience of Gorbachev, we have learned – in order to really rebuild something from home, you need to have the will and the mind. Not a desire to stay in power or to come to her.