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Sunday, March 18, 2018

The government will build a human resources policy based on the experience of the Soviet Union

The authorities will base personnel policies on the basis of Soviet experience

November 14, 2013, 10:18

Text: Peter Akopov


The personnel policy is broken and we need to revive it, said the head of the presidential administration Sergei Ivanov. To come up with something completely new is not necessary – Soviet personnel policy was well constructed. Update elite is impossible without a systematically-built personnel work, and now need to find ways of its application in the absence of a single pyramid of power and party control.

“In the Soviet Union the personnel policy was quite well built. There were certain filters, steps, through which people passed, – said Sergey Ivanov at the meeting with Vice-governors of the Russian regions. – I will not hide, looked after them in the best sense of the word – were mentors, people “were”. If they proved with concrete actions that they are successful, then they were transferred to Moscow, appointed to higher positions in the region or in the Central offices of ministries and departments”.

In Ivanov’s offer to return to the personnel policy of the Soviet era it was mostly about the personnel reserve, said the newspaper VIEW, political scientist, Chairman of the Board of the development Fund civil society Konstantin Kostin:

“Then the system was built so that the people included into personnel reserve, have been employed, received a career promotion. Looked after them, there was a so-called mentoring was upward mobility from the regional level to Federal, most effective when regional managers came into the Federal personnel reserve, and then to the Federal authorities. This is a very important component, which determines the efficiency of public administration”.

Participated in the seminar, the Deputy governors agreed with the head of the presidential administration – and not because of insubordination.

“We tend to abandon many of the realities of the Soviet Union, but then we still return to them, – said the newspaper LOOK Deputy head of the Komi Republic on domestic policy Alexey Chernov. – The personnel policy of the Soviet era – especially a fine example of personnel policy, when there was personnel reserve, rotation and many other positive aspects that are now practised in many countries. Just when they are in the format of a single party, as it was in the USSR, and different. Without unnecessary discussions, it is clear that such a policy is an absolute necessity.

“I come from the “personnel” who passed through the school of party building and climbed it on the horizontal and vertical relations that existed in Soviet times”, – said the Deputy Chairman of the government of the Republic of Buryatia Peter Socks. – An appeal to the Soviet experience of the personnel policy is a good idea. The question that needs to be addressed is the creation of an effective system of recruitment. Personnel reserve exists only on paper, I absolutely agree with Sergei Borisovich. But the bright minds can be found not only in Moscow or Saint-Petersburg – Russia is big, and regions can become “suppliers” of successful managers for the Federal government. But large distances (for example, the area of our Republic is 351 thousand km) and create a lot of difficulties. Must be created the possibility to organize the transfer of valuable employees, you need to provide them with housing – we are now smart guys can’t make it due to the fact that there is no possibility to prescribe either in a service apartment or as something else.”

Completely take those methods which were in the personnel policy of the Soviet Union, is impossible, although there were many positive practices, said the newspaper LOOK first Deputy Governor of Krasnoyarsk region Sergey Ponomarenko:

“But their adaptation to modern conditions, they may be claimed. For example, with the managerial personnel reserve, which is maintained in the regions in recent years. This is the practice, which today may be in demand.”

Work with personnel in the Soviet years, was brought almost to perfection – Stalinist slogan “Cadres decide everything” was the unofficial basic law of the Soviet government. It is a violation of the principles of Soviet personnel of the machine, expressed first in the personnel reshuffle, which was arranged in the city and regional committees of the party in the late ‘ 80s Gorbachev (when some of them were replaced by three leaders in two years), then in its almost complete reliance on the party in personnel work (and in fact, the Central Committee fulfilled the role of the chief personnel officer of the country), was the most important cause of the weakening and then the deregulation of the work of the state apparatus. And coupled with experiments in managing the economy was the cause of the crisis, which was used by the forces who wanted to destroy the country. After the Soviet personnel work began on the opposite.

“Soviet human resources were similar to the pyramid, that it was necessary to climb step by step and it was destroyed in the early 90’s, – says Director of the Institute of applied politics Olga Kryshtanovskaya. – On the highest positions of power got people without any experience Burbulis, Stankevich, Chubais, galaxy of savlov. The people who happened to be at the very top, brought his friends – was sitting at the cottage Gaidar recalled that here we have this smart guy, let it be Minister. It was a complete mess, the quality of training was often highly questionable. Although it was welcomed in the West, and liberal society is an open system, an influx of new personnel.”

The work of the personnel Department (Photo: RIA “Novosti”)

“In the post-Soviet personnel policy we passed two vzaimootnoshenia phase, – said the Deputy Dean of the faculty of applied political science, higher school of Economics, member of the presidential Council on human rights Leonid Polyakov. – In 90-e years in management structures merged everything that rises – the principle of “whose person and how much money is paid.”

Zero, on the background of the disintegration and decay of the state, Putin’s decision to appeal to the personnel reserve of the security services was a gesture of despair – just nowhere more to take people on which to rely and not be afraid that they all stolen. What they did not do, was already good. And the fact that some of them are then involved in the process of plundering in the same way as their predecessors, do not be surprised – the mechanism of protection against corruption we have. In addition, honesty is not a guarantee of professionalism – it is simply the minimum requirement that must be addressed to all. An honest fool can be even worse than just a thief.”

According to Polyakova, we have now reached the third phase in the personnel policy – when it is necessary to avoid both of these situations: and that, when positions were bought, and the one when neither of them were just honest people: “we Need to build the pipeline that will be transparent and people can see what kind of person it is and how it works”.

The first serious attempt to build a system of personnel work were undertaken in the mid-noughties.

“To reconstruct the lists of personnel reserves, first United Russia, then the President, says Olga Kryshtanovskaya. – When refused single-mandate districts in the Duma elections, the party began with elevators, but the stairs were not and it was not clear on what basis they select people. Unclear rules of the game led to the fact that as soon as the man was upstairs, began to rise friends and relatives. Half of the Duma are someone’s friends and mistresses. In the regions, if the Manager was coming, he pulls for his whole clan – wife, for example, often the head of the Bank or branch of the Federal agencies in the region.”

In the administration of the President were serious about personnel policy, said the Poles, in the times of Medvedev formed a special presidential personnel reserve: “But he was a symbol – 500 or even 1000 people in a huge country with 83 constituent entities of the Russian Federation is absolutely insufficient”.

“The policy of nationalization of the elites began relatively recently, only a couple of years ago, – reminds the political scientist, member of the expert Council of the Institute of socio-economic and political studies Alexei Zudin. But even before this was created a variety of personnel reserves, so we can not say that nothing was done or was it all done correctly.

Positive work was carried out. Based on made – personnel reserves and measures for nationalization of the elite – is now manifested heightened attention to the system personnel policy. This is another natural step. The contents of the personnel policy is the restoration of adequate motivation, the creation of the career models for the officials”.

“The career of Manager should be based on the same principles, which usually recommended to politicians,” says Leonid Polyakov, – start from the bottom, with the municipal elections, then fight for a place in the regional legislative Assembly, go to the Governor’s office and then apply for Federal positions in the state Duma, the Federation Council, the presidency.

So it must be official – absurd, when one comes to the role of Minister without tasting any of the managerial positions previous order, or jumps via ten steps. It is necessary to restore the Soviet principle of growing personnel, the gradual promotion of people depending on how they solve tasks at a certain level. If you manage to build such a pipeline, it will make government policy much more effective than it is now. Today the level of professionalism of the people occupying the different floors of the management hierarchy, is completely random. Personnel policy is subject to lobbying, in 90-e years, even whole floors of the oligarchs bought up the Ministry. And today, unfortunately, it often happens that the posts we make or cronyism, outright bribery or conflict of interests, which are moving their people. In the personnel policy there is a monstrous chaos, so it is no coincidence that often it comes down to manual control, as, for example, in Pikalevo.

An appeal to the Soviet experience naturally different, we just are not.

“I would not take too literally the statement about the return to the Soviet system, the main thing that Sergei Ivanov said about the need for a coherent and consistent personnel policy – this is a new stage in the development of personnel policy,” says Alexei Zudin. – References to the fact that it is Soviet, she is on the circumstances of time and place. This is the tradition that we have, and in this sense the situation is no alternative if we want to achieve something. To build meaningful, justifiable and providing real value HR policy is possible, based on existing tradition. Reliance on the Soviet tradition does not exclude the introduction there of modern elements. Neither of which mechanical reproduction Soviet designs. In the Soviet time was not the private sector, multi-party, regional head did not need to have the skills of public figures, the authorities worked in secrecy, it was typical for the whole system.”

“Of course, indeed to learn from the Soviet experience is impossible, – tells Poles. – Was a great specificity – there was such a thing as nomenclature, which was a career reserve, and was hard the principle of membership in the Communist party, that is, obedience to strict rules of conduct and the party and ideological influence.

The threat of losing a party card was a very serious deterrent. “United Russia” cannot replace the Communist party. In terms plasticheskogo society where the principle of political competition becomes more relevant, it would be absurd to expect that one party monopolisitic personnel policy”.

“For the first time at such a high level is recognized as a positive power of the experience of the Soviet system, I’m glad we stopped indiscriminately to decry or defend all Soviet and began separating the grain from the chaff, says Olga Kryshtanovskaya. But to restore the Soviet system of personnel reserve will be very difficult. Then there was a certain system of filtering frames from the bottom – the pioneers, the Komsomol. In the early stages was otsmatrivali guys. Now such a system exists in the “Young guard” United Russia”, and other parliamentary parties appeared youth wings, but it’s not across the country, and in the party. Today there is a piece of the Soviet system – the party with the youth offices, a piece of the capitalist system – competition for positions in the ministries, where anyone can come. But the competitive system is not working – normal people almost never come in such ads. Strange people coming, and the normal do not perceive competition as a serious proposal. Including due to the extremely low salaries – you can officially offer 15 thousand rubles. All know that the elite have a very rich, however paltry salary. And all envelope and other supplements – until you enter the system, you don’t know what really you’ll have income. Now began the process of raising the salaries of officials – however, doing it wrong, because people do not explain anything”.

The main principles of Soviet personnel management – a single vertical of power and extraterritoriality (resulting in no separation of the Federal and regional elite by and large did not exist – move happened all the time).

In the USSR there was a single Vertikal of power from the village to Moscow in two types, the party and the Soviet. The main was the party, but the movement between the Soviet and party work was painless, besides in the country was not divided into separate levels of government. And now we have three levels of government – including municipalities, is not considered a public authority.

“The power was monolithic, and you quietly transferred to party work in the Soviet, and it was all approved by a single body – the Politburo or Secretariat of the Central Committee, – says Olga Kryshtanovskaya. – Now a single hierarchy has broken down, there is no single huge pyramid, there are three hotel levels of government. It may seem that the hierarchy is still there – the Kremlin, the presidential administration with the role, and they supposedly control everything. But actually not all they control, and most importantly, they have through the personnel Elevator. They have no such leverage as was in Soviet times. Preserved only in vertical power structures, but if you do, the territorial police, and then it will be broken”.

There is now and the principle of extraterritoriality, like an expert, and in Soviet times, officials ran through a different part of the political system and found him the place which he was best characterized by:

“Moscow wasn’t sucking people out of the regions – on the contrary, she sent people to the regions, so we were a full-fledged Empire. Not we were going to migrants, and we went there, ran. The Kremlin sent people to all the towns and villages. Do not put the head of a man who was born and raised in this area, because it was the basis for corruption and the appearance of the clans. It was the exception in the ethnic republics, but even there was constantly mixed frames. The frame was considered to be very valuable if he worked in the Komsomol, then in the economic Council, then the Executive Committee, and in different regions. Threw on the virgin lands, BAM, that man got a lot of experience, and then he returned to Moscow in the government. It was a rule”.

In recent years, the government has tried to partially use the Soviet experience.

“If you look at the dynamics of the appointments of governors in the zero years, and on the dynamics of the elections in the last couple of years,” says Zudin, it can be seen that the preferred from the standpoint of the Federal centre is the Governor, who has some connection with the region where it becomes first person, that is, it can’t be pure outsider – has experience working in the Federal structures and business, modern education. Frequent were the examples when a man passed and public policy, was a member of or worked in archstructure. Net options – Varyag, a strength, a one hundred percent local, having come from only business, or only of the officials – are unproductive. Select those who is a set of key competencies necessary to the first person in the region to cope with their responsibilities. These conditions, together with measures for nationalization of the elite, is the establishment of the fundamental principles that regulate the upward flow of personnel. Now these principles should be framed and distributed in depth.

Another important quality of Soviet personnel was that each Manager was required to prepare the following generation, says Kryshtanovskaya.

“Every Manager not only argued in one center, but knew a replacement, three people who were in its personnel reserve and was able to change it – in his safe was their personal business. They could not hold office, but they are nurtured, grown. Now it is impossible, it does not work – the boss will perceive them as competitors that need to prevent government, not giving them the opportunity to develop. And people are leaving. During the Soviet years, the head could not from-for jealousy cut off their oxygen, he had to help them because he was accountable in terms of how prepared its personnel reserve. How to achieve this now? Every Manager must become a mentor interested in how to prepare a change – a change in psychology.”

Such a system required a huge experience on the management of regions and the party was engaged in the organization Department of the Central Committee, says Kryshtanovskaya. Who can take it? Now, the regions are administered by the office of the President on domestic policy, you might want to expand and control functions of the President concerning public service and shots.

“And without amending the Constitution, in the framework of existing horizontal separation of powers, may establish an integrated personnel policy, – said Leonid Polyakov. – Need a program for managers of different levels, training of municipal employees, it is necessary to coordinate the work of the universities that train these employees. Maybe even restore the system of postgraduate distribution for managerial occupations to the guys who done them, had the guarantees that will not roam with a diploma, and will specifically prepare to work in municipal positions. The same goes for the regional authorities, governments of the Federation. As for the Federal level to prepare retraining those who have passed the municipal and regional stage, it may be, secondary education, special diplomas, to become head of the Department of the Ministry. There must be coordination with the political parties”.

You need to use such measures as will ensure the professionalization of the civil service transformation civil servants, and especially their elites, as an independent party in the Russian elite, said Alexei Zudin. The detachment, which is not dependent on the other groups of the Russian elite:

“For example, causes great annoyance in society and is one of the conditions of corruption the tendency of government officials to focus on consumer standards and style of the business elite essentially means a psychological discipline of officials business. It was established in the 90 years left at the beginning of zero, but it is now starting to take measures in order to free them from this dependence and transform into independent Corporation. Consistent personnel policy will inevitably encounter serious resistance. Her opponents have all the major groups of the elite – those who are accustomed to old practices and are interested in their preservation. There are people among high-ranking civil servants, and the governors, and business”.

You need to understand how to combine work with the personnel reserve and the election of regional leaders.

“Gubernatorial elections contrary to the system – or the people elect, or all stirred with a big spoon,” says Kryshtanovskaya. – After the abolition of gubernatorial elections in 2004, Putin tried to grow frames of a new type in the field, but now it was abandoned. Against the background of protest rallies and the growth of opposition the government wanted to reassure people. And people, according to all polls, dreamed of the return of gubernatorial elections – it was a strong desire. And the election is back – this was a step from the Soviet personnel system. And how now to create a personnel reserve, is unclear.

HR policy is possible only as a system, and what we see, evidence in favor of this approach, said Alexei Zudin:

“On the one hand, the representatives of the bureaucratic elite limited or even closed the possibility to combine primary activities with the business, and on the other hand – seriously the wage is increased. So that there is coherence and meaning, and most importantly, understood by management what other way, besides turning civil servants into a separate Corporation, no. It is clear that modern, open, with lifts, but not adherent to the other units of the elite”.

The totality of anti-corruption measures can be seen as part of the new personnel policy, everything that makes the elite more transparent, introduces greater control over costs and activities are elements of the new agreement, when the state and the society hires people at the service, says Olga Kryshtanovskaya:

“But the limit can’t be without sharing them on the benefits – people are giving their time and effort, but in return receives honor and respect. Honor to be in the team and those who run the country should be paramount”.

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