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Friday, December 9, 2016

Russia promised to return to Kazakhstan from the Cabinet of curiosities skull a national hero


Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev at the meeting with Kazakh counterpart Karim Masimov promised to fulfill the request of Kazakhstan appealed to Russia over the past dvojcatka years. We are talking about the homecoming skull Cakes Batyr – one of the leaders of the Central Asian uprising of 1916. How and why the skull is the national hero was in the collection of the St. Petersburg Museum of Ethnography and anthropology?

Prime Minister of Russia Dmitry Medvedev has promised, at the request of the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan, Karim Masimov, to consider the question of transfer of the Republic for the burial of the remains of one of the leaders of the Kazakh national liberation movement of the Cakes of the Warrior.

“The remains of one of the leaders of our national liberation movement located in the Museum of anthropology”

Explain that the remains of the “Kazakhstan Makhno” Nurmagambet Kokebaeva (better known as Cakes Batyr), which suffered the posthumous fate of the national hero. The remains of Batyr kept in the St. Petersburg Kunstkammer Museum of anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) Russian Academy of Sciences.

“And we’ve got one question, asked Massimov to his Russian counterpart during a meeting held yesterday in Moscow. – I would have really wanted to ask you instructed, at least, to understand this question: the remains of one of the leaders of our national liberation movement of that period Batyr Cakes are in the Museum of anthropology and Ethnography named after Peter the Great Russian Academy of Sciences. If we had the opportunity or swap, or some kind of form to find to return his remains to Kazakhstan and buried on the territory of Kazakhstan”, – said Masimov.

According to the version followed by Kazakh historians, Cakey, Batyr, who managed to war with the king, and with the red Army in 1923 was hiding in the Kyzyl Kum, were “captured by the red army” in his own house, and beheaded. In the Kazakhstan mass media there is an assertion that the proof of the elimination of the “bandit Cakes” the head was sent to the Orenburg – the then centre of the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR, and then in the center, “as a gift to Lenin.” According to Kazakh historian Manash Kozybaev, in 1926, the skull of the leader of Kulan Kipchak-Cakes-Batyr” was in Leningrad, in the Museum of curiosities – in the same anthropological collections as the skull of Kenesary-Khan, leader of the Kazakh uprising of the mid-nineteenth century.

In support of his version of the Kazakh party is relying on 20 years ago: the Russian diplomatic Agency: “Ministry of foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation presents its compliments to the Embassy of Kazakhstan in Moscow and the response to the note of the MFA No. 19/63 from 13.01.95 G. having had the honor to report the following: Skull Kokebaeva really kept in the anthropological Foundation of the Kunstkammer in St. Petersburg

Some media reported that the skull Cakes Batyr “offered as one of the exhibits,” that is not quite right – if he really is there, it is in numerous cranial characters (“Cherepovetsky”) collection of the anthropological Foundation of the Kunstkammer.

Note that the total in this Fund of the Museum of anthropology and Ethnography is 776 collections containing more than 178,5 thousand units. Actually, “hunting for skulls” – examples from the Paleolithic to the present, was begun in the mid-nineteenth of the year, the founder of comparative anatomy by academician Karl Baer. And now in the collection of the osteological and craniological materials (in other words, bones and skulls and their fragments) – about 15 thousand exhibits.

Revolt in the rear

Nurmagambet Kokanbaev (Kokabiel), better known as Cakes-Batyr, was one of the leaders of another, much larger, Central Asian uprising of 1916. The reason for the rebellion, as you know, which was the decree of Nicholas II to bring “foreigners” to the rear of work in the frontal area. Recall that in the midst was the First world war.

The uprising spread to the Central Asian possessions of the Russian Empire, from the current Astana (then Akmola) to the Fergana valley. In the role of enemies of the rebels was not only Royal power, but also Russian immigrants – peasants who received land in Semirechye after the Stolypin agrarian reform. From the point of view of the ideologists of the uprising, mobilization was contrary to the special status of citizens, foreigners, and the settlers took away land from the locals. According to some historians, the victims of the rebels became more than 2 thousand settlers.

The unresolved land question, coupled with the agitation of religious preachers calling for Jihad, did the trick. In the midst of a rebellion in Turgay district, under the command of rebel leader Amangeldy Imanov was about 50 thousand “bayonets”. The rebels broke the bond between Tashkent, Verny (Alma-ATA) and European Russia. The authorities could not ignore the interest that the uprising showed the enemy of Russia, the Ottoman Empire, but also neighboring China, where for five years before the revolution took place.

To quell the rebellion in Turkestan deep behind the lines, martial law was imposed. Against the rebels were 30 thousand soldiers of the regular army, under the leadership of the Turkestan Governor-General Aleksey Kuropatkin, in the recent past – the war Minister and commander in chief during the Russo-Japanese war.

Detachment Cakes-Batyr acted in one of the epicenters of the uprising, near the city of Turgay, and participated in the storming of this city. The rebellion was crushed in January 1917. According to various sources, the loss of the rebels ranged from 3.5 thousand up to 60 thousand people. But, strictly speaking, turmoil in Kazakhstan and the Central Asian steppes only have faded and flared up again with the beginning of the civil war (which in Turkestan continued until 1930-ies).

Some commanders of the rebels of 1916 such as Amangeldy Imanov and Alibi Dzhangildin, chose the Alliance with the Bolsheviks, and was posthumously added to the heroes of the civil war, and appropriately immortalized. “Khan” Turgay Emir Abdulgafar Zhanbosynov and the commander of the Cakes Batyr was on the other side, and was included in the Pantheon of national heroes only after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In 1996, in honor of the 125 anniversary Cakes Batyr was opened the bust of the hero at home, the regional center of Arkalyk.

In search of the lost skull

Note that the Kazakh government has already asked Russia to return the remains of the Cakes Batyr.

In may this year the Minister of culture and sports of Kazakhstan arystanbek Mukhamediuly reported by the national media as a fait accompli: Russia has agreed to return the skull from the Cabinet of curiosities in Kazakhstan. And moreover – “now the issue of delivery, all under personal control.”

“Our scientists found where the skull – said Mukhamediuly announced in an interview to another media. – The expedition went, the Director of the Almaty state Museum, all the historical data found. Was only a technical procedure.”

Judging by the fact that the Consulate General of Kazakhstan in Saint-Petersburg applied to wounds with the corresponding request in 2004, scientists found the trail at least 10 years ago. In fact, if the reference to the Ministry of foreign Affairs from 1995 is true, then the corresponding requests for Astana sent two decades ago.

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