Hero of the Soviet Comedy “Maxim Perepelitsa” after he was called to serve in the army, brags: “I was offered to go in aviation, and artillery… But all are not an independent kind of troops — infantry support!”. And it’s true, although with one fundamental caveat: for the wars of past generations. What awaits us in the future?
The main feature of the wars of the future, admittedly, is that from the earth they move in the aerospace environment. Doctor of military Sciences, author of several books about the wars of the sixth generation Vladimir Slipchenko has always maintained that a future war will change many conventional ideas in the areas of strategy, operational art and tactics.
To meet the new, modern military challenges in Russia on the basis of the Space forces, aviation and air defense under the unified command was established to Air and space forces. Recently they celebrated their first anniversary. Reviewer “MK” undertook to perform the first year of their existence, and at the same time to explain how to fight the country in the coming decades.
Creating a video conferencing was the decision justified and long overdue, due to modern military challenges. Earlier military confrontation was two-dimensional and occurred exclusively on the surface of the globe (width, depth of attack or defense). “Vertical” — mainly air — wars were the auxiliary, was used only for support of ground troops.
Today, everything is different. In modern warfare the main fighting, the decisive outcome of the operation, are concentrated vertically in aerospace, and any action on earth be providing this theater of operations.
So, what they will become, war of the XXI century?
It would not have clearly highlighted the direction of the main blow. It will be simultaneously applied to all areas of the theater of operations.
Offensive, defense of combined arms units, parts, connections and associations, tank battles — all this on our eyes a thing of the past. If the defending side in a war will try to use tanks, armored personnel carriers, artillery, precision weapons of the enemy will immediately turn them into field target that will be destroyed at a distance, without coming in contact with them and direct contact.
That is why the theoretical justification for wars of the sixth generation already does not involve the participation of large land military groups. Consequently, terms such as “front”, “rear”, “front edge” simply wither away because the fighting will be focused in aerospace over the territory of the whole country or several countries.
In such a war, it is difficult to identify the difference between strategy and operational art, as the control of troops, forces and means will ultimately boil down mostly to three commands: “find”, “decide”, “to destroy”.
Will change dramatically even such a thing as victory. In all the wars of past generations, the main burden of the confrontation taking on ground troops. Their task was to be the defeat of the enemy army, the destruction of the economic potential of his state and the overthrow of the political system. For this the troops were to enter the enemy’s territory and occupy it.
The wars of the future occupation do not assume. Victory can be achieved mainly by the destruction of the economic potential of the enemy. In this war with the help of strategic strike forces, precision weapons to inflict a heavy defeat on the means for a retaliatory strike of the enemy, to destroy key military targets and destroying its economy, the power system, communications. And in addition, using techniques of information warfare to demoralize the population, then the political system of the enemy state will collapse by itself.
From this it follows that if the state in its defence policy relies, as in the last century, exclusively by land forces, in modern war, it waits for inevitable defeat. After all, in the beginning of modern warfare as a result of applying sudden massive precision air strikes on the organs and means of command and control can be completely disrupted their control, the armed forces will be demoralized and will lose the ability to wage an effective armed struggle.
Ground forces in modern warfare are used mostly at the final stage of the fighting, often in the format of the special mobile units.
After air and space operations, US Iraq was on the verge of surrender. Photo: flickr@by John Out and About
And this war is already a reality, which every year becomes more and more obvious outlines. A first example of operations in the Persian Gulf in early 1991, the attack on Iraq in December 1998, the aerospace operation in Yugoslavia in March of 1999, and now fighting the Russian HQs in Syria. All these military operations have certain similarities, which were not wars, as they call them, of the fourth generation. First and foremost, is the use of aerospace and a secondary role of ground forces.
For example, during the war in the Persian Gulf the United States has used its army only after completion of the 38-day air and space offensive operations. But the space group of the coalition forces led by the United States, was used continuously from the first to the last day of the war.
It included 60 military spacecraft for various purposes (reconnaissance, communication and relay), the grouping apparatus system “NAVSTAR-GPS” and a large number of commercial satellites and Earth remote sensing. Moreover, during the operation of the orbital group was increased, its orbital reserve was created in advance. In commercial devices by the US government and NATO was specifically made decisions on priority use of their resources in the interests of the military.
But the value of ground troops of the Western coalition in the war of secondary importance, if not more. When, after the aerospace operations Iraq was on the verge of surrender, the Pentagon suddenly was horrified to realize that their land part, deployed to the region, they found it was not needed. But how to explain it to the American taxpayers who have consistently paid for their content?
And then, according to some experts, was the necessity of 4-day land component to this war, which was agreed to call the “air-land operation” of the multinational force. At the same time to occupy the territory of Iraq there was no need, neither the US nor their allies, and because its part of the ground, but rather, just riding on tanks in the desert, was suspended with the release of ground forces to the line of the Euphrates river. The ground operation has actually stopped the flow of prisoners to the Iraqi army, which was so much that to feed and water them in the waterless desert, the winner had no chance, and most importantly, necessary.
Similar situation was during the war in Yugoslavia. There after the NATO bombing affected less than 1% of military equipment of land forces, and the loss of manpower was only 524 people, not counting the 37 missing. And all because the army was not the main goal of precision strikes of the US air force. The object of destruction was the state of Yugoslavia. The destruction of this goal as a result of the aerospace operations and information warfare was achieved, the Milosevic regime is overthrown, the state destroyed.
The results of aerospace operations, which is currently held by the Russian HQs in Syria, to bring still early, but it is now clear that this operation had a decisive impact on the destruction of the infrastructure of ISIS. Air strikes that cause the Russian HQs are concentrated in objects that represent a financial interest for the leaders of the militants. The main task — the destruction of the oil infrastructure of the so-called ISIS, the undermining of which will lead to the destruction of the economic base of this terrorist entity that aspires to the name “state”.
A new kind of war in a new perspective raised the problem of nuclear weapons. The question of abandonment is not and will not rise for a long time. However, nuclear parity, which was once the Foundation of strategic stability, now ceases to play a crucial role. Nuclear weapons are gradually excluded the world leaders from the arguments used for the solution of the most important military and political tasks, so in economically developed countries to replace the strategic nuclear forces come similar non-nuclear.
Almost all combat units gradually transformirovalsya in carriers of high-precision cruise missiles of various range.
As a result, in recent years we have seen a trend where almost all the combat aircraft, land-based, diesel and most nuclear submarines, surface ships and naval aviation gradually transformirovalsya in carriers of high-precision cruise missiles of various range. They are all included in reconnaissance and combat information systems for various purposes, which are based on space infrastructure.
They operate in the same air space and are able to solve the same tasks as the nuclear, which in these countries are moving in the mode posluzivanje, becoming the subject of trade and political deals.
Simultaneously, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is increasingly worrisome, as there is a danger that it may fall into the hands of terrorists and to appear on the arms of countries in dire economic Straits, such as North Korea, and will be used as the subject of blackmail.
Thus, according to military theorists, war of the fourth generation (conventional non-nuclear), as if stepping through the fifth generation (nuclear), have been transformed into war sixth generation (conventional non-nuclear and without deciding the outcome of ground operations ground forces). It is also proved by the conceptual program that were adopted in recent years in the US, such for example, as “joint vision 2010” and “all-Encompassing domination.”
In 2005, the us military strategists presented to the President and Congress conclusion about the role of military space in the national security strategy, which stated: “…Superiority and dominant position in space is now critical, essentially critical element to achieving success on the battlefield in future wars, just as the superiority on land, the command of the sea and airspace were previously and remain the most important elements and terms of modern military strategy (doctrine)”.
It was a turning stage of transition the United States from the passive military use of outer space on course to the actual deployment in space of offensive and defensive weapons systems.
Conquest military superiority in space, U.S. necessary to ensure that the armed forces of this country could almost seamlessly to not only counter space but also other operations — on the use of force in space and from space, in support of combat operations in all environments: land, air and sea. The “brain” of the Pentagon — strategic command of the USA, the United space command and became the main military command structure American military forces, empowered with the planning and management of military space operations in support of operations nuclear forces and General purpose forces.
The main tasks of the military space strategy, the United States can be summarized as follows:
• continuous control of outer space and the global environment space, and;
• actively ensuring free access of States in outer space to conduct military activities in space, from space and through space);
• prevention of access to open space potential enemy, deploying them offensive tools and their application in space or from space against the United States;
• protection and defense of space assets and systems of the United States from any influence from the space and other resources of the enemy;
• strategic missile defense and other defense space defense means;
• deployment and combat application in and from space conventional (non-nuclear) offensive and defensive space assets;
• deployment and use of space vehicles and systems of military and state administration, ensuring the implementation of the concept of “network-centric” management of military organization and operations of the armed forces in the wars of the new image.
The backbone of the forces created in the United States to solve these problems, — 14-th air army of the air force. The basis of its combat use are outlined in a special document of the Ministry of the air force AFDD 2-2, “Space operations”, issued in August 1998. In it the conquest of unconditional military superiority in space proclaimed the primary objective of any military campaign.
The military conquest of space superiority is proposed to be achieved by the special anti-space operations, which can be defensive and offensive.
The most frequently used form of offensive counter space operations, according to us military, will be the application of aviation, rocket and artillery attacks on ground elements of the space infrastructure of the enemy. It is also envisaged the possibility of anti-space operations of the schemes: “earth—space”, “space—space” and “space—to-earth”.
The Russian political leadership and the Ministry of defence take into account the plans of the United States in the development of its own armed forces. August 1, 2015 by combining under unified command Military-air forces and aerospace defense was created by the aerospace forces of the Russian Federation, which already received its baptism of fire in Syria. It is there in real combat conditions they now work out the means and methods of warfare of a new generation. Given this experience, we can already conclude that the main features of the armed struggle the future, the following factors:
• conduct aerospace operations, the main means of achieving the objectives of modern war;
• exclusion from the immediate area of confrontation;
• the existence of nuclear weapons does not have a decisive impact on the achievement of political and strategic problems of modern war;
• military operation in modern warfare is conducted on a vast territory without a clearly defined front lines, in terms of the rapidity of operations and the significant dispersion of forces and means;
• to destroy targets at great distances requires modern high-precision weapons of various ranges, created, including on new physical principles, and their means of delivery — air, sea and eventually space-based. Because to the fore the possibilities of those branches of the armed forces who are carriers: air force, Navy, and aerospace, as well as of electronic warfare;
•ensuring coordination of actions of troops, operational management, and intelligence in war only space tools that can provide surveillance of enemy targets in the entire depth of his operational formation.
And most importantly: to wage such a war, a state must have a highly developed science and economy, able to create and high-precision weapons, and modern communications systems and means of control of troops — all that fighting and intellectual capability required for victory in the war of new generation.Related posts: