Sunday marks exactly 75 years since the famous night air RAM, which made Viktor Talalikhin. And still this extreme method of air combat, fraught with the sacrifice of the pilot, has not lost its relevance. Because with the rams in varying degrees, related to many historical events ranging from the cold war and ending with the terrorist attack 09.11.2001.
Air RAM – or as it is called pilots, air “melee” occurred almost simultaneously with the military aviation and air combat. The founder of this technique is the Russian pilot Pyotr Nesterov, although his name is often associated maneuver known as “loop” or “loop”.
“Mentyukov decided to fly. In the air he turned on the radio with a request to take care of his pregnant wife and mother. “Land” was assured: “Everything will be done”
Being a military pilot, Nesterov was thinking primarily about the techniques that the pilot can use in a dogfight to gain the upper hand over the enemy. So he came to think about the possibility of a targeted strike his plane on the aircraft of the enemy. Thought Nesterov, should have come on top of an enemy airplane and moving my car down to hit him with a wheel chassis. Thus, the believed author of “dead loop”, the aircraft of the enemy will lose control and fall.
His theory 27-year-old Nesterov tested in practice on 8 September 1914, at the beginning of the First world war – and, alas, with their lives. He, as planned, went from the top to the Austrian bomber “Albatross” and hit him on top of the wheels, but the force of the impact destroyed both cars. You can add that in March 1915, the Russian ACE pilot Alexander Kazakov has again used a battering RAM, destroying in this way the German plane, but not killed and was even able to bring his damaged plane on the airfield.
A new war – new heroes
The summer of 1941. Over the Soviet cities rising smoke. Air shaken by explosions of shells and bombs. The retreat of red army troops sometimes turns into a real flight. The Tribunal, and shot “for cowardice” present in these days in the dealer position parts more often than awards for courage and heroism. Nevertheless, there were those who were awarded prizes. The first heroes of the Soviet Union in the days of the second world war became fighter pilots, air rams committed. It Zdorovtsev Stepan, Petr Kharitonov and Mikhail Zhukov. Later during the war, their exploits are repeated over 300 (some sources give a figure of 600) Soviet pilots.
Among them were the real masters of the RAM. Two of them – Nikolay Terekhin and Alexey Khlobystov is thus destroyed during the war, three enemy aircraft. And Khlobystov made a miracle: flying lend-lease “American” P-40 “Tomahawk”, he was hit by ramming two German aircraft “Messerschmitt-110” and “Messerschmitt-109” during one air combat and then managed to put the car on its airfield with a short almost one-third of the wing. Another Soviet pilot Boris Kovzan during the war years made four RAM, and losing an eye as a result of injury, returned to action and continued to fly.
Myths and truth about the great Otechestvennyie one air RAM, the perfect woman: 12 September 1941, Ekaterina Zelenko, piloting a single-engine bomber su-2, thus destroying the “Messerschmitt-109”. Alas, the brave pilot was killed.
Preserved information about deliberate rams committed by pilots Poland, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, England, Greece, Germany and Japan. However, these were isolated episodes. Of these countries the most widespread rams took in the land of the rising sun, which, however, is not surprising: each kamikaze mission was a battering RAM, although for ground targets. The prevalence among Japanese pilots culture of self-sacrifice for the sake of victory over the enemy set the stage for destruction the same way the enemies in the sky.
In the history of the Second world war was also recorded one case of the air RAM, the perfect American pilot. In 1945, during the battle for Okinawa Lieutenant of the marine corps, the United States, Robert Klingman caught on your fighter “Corsair” Japanese reconnaissance aircraft “Nicky”. Having approached to the distance of the fire, Klingman pulled the trigger, but the guns were silent. Obviously, they just clicked. Having no other way to stop the Japanese, Klingman decided to RAM. Huge propeller “Corsair” he literally sawed off the tail “Nicky”. After ramming the pilot managed to safely land the damaged plane in the water, where it picked up American sailors. For Japanese crew, the bravery of the American had much more tragic consequences – none of the pilots “Nicky” did not survive.
A suicide bomber against the Soviet powers
“It’s hard to imagine a greater degree of dishonesty than that which was manifested towards Kulapina after RAM”
Come may of 1945. Replaced “hot” came the cold war, permeated by mistrust and suspicion, relations between East and West. Every step one side perceived the other as attempting to cause harm, and therefore it is natural that the participants in “the great confrontation” sought to get as much information about each other’s actions, especially in the defense sector.
One of the key roles in this data collection played a reconnaissance. In the second half of 1950-ies in Soviet airspace frequented American high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft U-2. Flying these very annoyed the Kremlin not only because thanks to them the Americans with impunity “spying” for the Soviet secrets. Impunity winged flight “spies” showed the superiority of American military technology over Soviet. The Soviet interceptors could not reach the U-2 on dvadtsatikilometrovaya the altitude at which this long-winged machine “considered” everything that she was interested in. Not surprisingly, the task to punish the insolent” was given in the USSR a special state importance. To punish, in fact, already was. In 1957, the Soviet air defense forces began to receive anti-aircraft missile s-75 “Dvina”, which could reach the U-2. And here 1 may 1960, it was “the moment of truth.”
That day in the Soviet sky invaded another U-2 piloted by Francis Gary Powers. The service air defense spotted him from the moment of crossing the border, but just to stop the scout was not technically possible. Only when the U-2 approached the Sverdlovsk, he was in the kill zone placed there rocket complexes With-75. However, the military leadership of the USSR, anticipating how many generals and Marshall heads to fly off, if the “spy” will be able to leave and this time, decided to err. To intercept the U-2 was sent the newest fighter su-9, purely by chance caught in an area where flying powers. This car can reach a height of 20 kilometers. That day it was distilled from the Siberian plant in Belarus Igor Mentyukov.
The plane was “empty” – no rockets or even high-altitude clothing for the pilot. But the commander of national air defense, later air Marshal Yevgeny Savitsky gave the order: “Destroy at any cost.” And in case if the pilot show, “dullness”, he added: “to RAM!” Savitsky knew that the plane had no ammunition.
The impact of the aircraft at transonic or supersonic speeds on a different plane at an altitude of 20 kilometers would inevitably lead to the destruction of both cars and loss of tightness. To Mentyukova, who had, as already noted, the high-rise clothing, this meant certain death. Thus, unlike other pilots who had a chance to survive after a battering RAM, he initially took on the role of a bomber pilot. Yes, he could have refused, but who knows what’s behind the intruder, suddenly he carries a nuclear bomb? Then it can result in death for hundreds of thousands of people. And Mentyukov decided to fly. In the air he turned on the radio with a request to take care of his pregnant wife and mother. “Land” was assured: “Everything will be done.”
Mentyukov was 20-km altitude, was “induced” via “ground”, but too big difference of speeds (U-2 was subsonic aircraft, and the su-9 went to “supersonic”) did not allow the Soviet pilot is definitely out in the tail “spy”. He slipped past him, and re-entering is not enough fuel. “Earth” gave the all-clear.
The rest is known. For Powers was released in a “fan” of seven or eight missiles s-75, one of which exploded behind the U-2. The blast broke the wings of “the spy,” interrupted his flight near Sverdlovsk. Alas, another rocket from the same “fans” shot down a MiG-19, also scrambled to intercept powers for “safety net”, although this made no sense: a fighter of this type in its technical capabilities could not reach the height at which flew the scout. Piloting the MiG-19 senior Lieutenant Sergey Safonov died.
Victims could be more. Indeed, in addition to Safonov, to intercept the U-2 the heads of the defense raised a MiG-19 with the same purpose, to demonstrate their zeal to the top military and party leadership. It was piloted by captain Boris Ayvazyan, but he managed to evade the missiles. Mentyukova, by the way, also had to Dodge.
It would be possible to finish the story about the failed deadly RAM Mentyukova, if not one circumstance. Powers insisted that he was not hit by a missile and the plane. This version is confirmed by the testimony of the Mentyukova. According to him, the U-2 was in cocurrent track from his interceptor. This trail represents a strong turbulence, which could not stand the design of the reconnaissance aircraft. Mentyukov argues that Sawicki knew about it and even thanked him with the words: “Without you he would have gone.” Why not tell the truth about how actually interrupted flight powers? According to Mentyukova, it was done for political purposes.
Nikita Khrushchev was, as we know, an ardent supporter of missile weapons and believed that military aviation only in vain “food” budget money. Thus, according to the “law of genre” rocket With-75 just had to bring down powers.
Battering rams “discharge” and “frost”
Come to the White house in 1969, President Richard Nixon proclaimed the shift from the “age of strife to an era of negotiations.” This policy was called “détente: Moscow and Washington left the pistols in their hands, but at least removed the fingers from the triggers. It seemed that the unauthorized invasion of the airspace to “peek” in the past, therefore, a strange aircraft appeared, without prior permission, in the sky, the Soviet Union or the United States, would not immediately see through the crosshairs.
Alas, reality has disproved these hopes. 28 November 1973 the captain Gennady Eliseev on the MiG-21 took off to intercept the plane violated the Soviet border in the area located in Azerbaijan Mugan valley. The offender was an Iranian fighter-bomber F-4 “Phantom II”. According to some, he is not lost, and was making a reconnaissance flight.
Elisha received the order: “Destroy!” Of the missiles passed. The intruder began to leave. For some unknown reason Elisha never used installed on the aircraft gun. Perhaps she simply refused. Seeing that F-4 going out of Soviet airspace, the pilot decided to go to the RAM. The crew of the Phantom, consisting of two people who ejected, was detained by Soviet border guards and soon released. And the MiG-21 Eliseeva crashed into a mountain. The pilot was killed and was posthumously awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
In 1981 in the United States to their duties began, the newly elected President Ronald Reagan proclaimed a “crusade” against the “evil Empire”, that is, against the USSR and its allies. The intransigence that marked Soviet-American relations, meant swift and severe rebuff to any (even unintentional) attempts of one party to encroach upon the territorial sovereignty of the other.
Georgian airfield Sandar. The sun, fruits, Caucasian hospitality. Moreover, far from “hot” Western boundaries of the Warsaw Pact and NATO. That’s where the most likely conflicts and incidents, and here live and be happy.
If such feelings and was in the soul of captain Valentine Kulapina, 18 July 1981, they are not gone. The order on the loudspeaker: “733, crash”. 733-a call Kulapina. After a few minutes, they manned interceptor su-15 in the air. Kulyapin sees the intruder – engine turboprop aircraft of indeterminate colors, the Windows sealed. Later establish that it was a “truck” CL-44 Argentine airline Transporte Aéreo Rioplatense, which delivered weapons from Israel to Iran. It is unlikely that he deliberately invaded Soviet airspace. Probably just got lost.
Kulyapin receives an order to force the violator to land at a Soviet airfield. The captain tries to push chetyrehmetrovy” into the territory of the USSR, but he won’t budge. Realizing that even a few minutes, and the aircraft out of Soviet airspace, Kulapina command gives the order: “destroy the Target!”
Su-15 is “hanging” almost adjacent to the CL-44, but the interceptor only long-range missiles. Shoot them in the emphasis is meaningless – walk on by. To keep up a kilometer and a half to lose the time during which the offender will be released over the Soviet border, and there it will not go astray – there will be an international scandal. It’s one thing to RAM.
Kulyapin not a kamikaze. He tries to strike while to stay alive. Carefully “crawl” under the plane of the Transporter, with a canopy almost touching the dural, and slowly begins to move forward. That wing remained behind and over the head again clear sky. This means that the “guillotine” of the keel, su-15 came close to rear edge plane of the CL-44. It’s time! The pilot moves forward the lever engine control, Kiel interceptor rips the wing of the intruder.
Both aircraft so damaged that the next flight can not. Kulyapin catapulted and a few minutes on the ground. Of the four crew members crashed freighter (three Argentine and one British) no one survived.
As judged the winner
“Whether it stole, whether he had been robbed, and, in General, he was involved in some kind of history.” And how could hero of the Soviet Union to be something involved?”
It is hard to imagine a greater degree of dishonesty than that which was manifested towards Kulapina the RAM. It was placed in the hospital, this is the order: almost twenty-fold over the bailout, neuro-psychological stress, you need to conduct a medical examination to make sure that the health of the pilot is not in danger. In the hospital and started strange things. First, in the hospital room were the offices of the Commission at the district. Detail inquiring of the pilot about the details of the fight, one of the colonels whispered to him: “Tell the team to knock the earth was not.”
Apparently, someone was very much afraid that the order to destroy the target which the pilot in time of peace could only be accomplished by ramming, on the head not Pat. Kulyapin realized: if so, it is waiting for the Tribunal. To destroy even an obvious violator airspace without orders is a crime. When it came to the generals from the Commission of the Ministry of defense, the pilot for a long time confessed that the order to shoot down the intruder was – didn’t want to fail the command part of the soldiers, not knowing how he was framed, the founding fathers of the commanders.
Kulapina officer of the regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel, he erased the record of negotiations with the 733rd and, of course, the teams at the destruction of another plane. The investigation of Lieutenant Colonel, ” he softened. It was not tried, not dismissed from the Armed forces, but the pressure on Kulapina, on the contrary, was strengthened. The feat of a brave pilot could turn to crime, but in those days it was threatened with perennial imprisonment and even capital punishment.
Again helped by the miracle of some meticulous General of the Metropolitan Commission still found on the standby CP the record of those negotiations and found that Kulyapin twice received the order to destroy the intruder.
In an official statement by TASS, of course, nothing was said about the air RAM, the more about the pilot who did it. Captain Kulapina presented the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. But in the end the “Gold star” he was never presented, although the Soviet “scale of merit” established in the years of the Second world war, the pilot was unconditionally worthy of the highest awards of the USSR. Instead Kulapina given the Order of the red banner, and then on a special, private list. In fact, get a PhD “Hero”, too many of the senior military leadership of the country, initially did not trust him and even tried to accuse of committing a military offence, would have to admit their mistakes. It is recognized, but only partially and giving to understand that a PhD is also to blame. What? Probably, that to shield “their”, sincerely believing in the officers ‘ mutual aid and flight the brotherhood. Or is that just fall under the mean of the principle: “whether it stole, whether he had been robbed, and, in General, he was involved in some kind of history.” And how could hero of the Soviet Union to be something involved?
In 1987 there was one case, however, unintentional air RAM committed by the Soviet pilot. Senior Lieutenant Vasiliy Tsymbal on the su-27 was removed from the Northern fleet Norwegian four-engine reconnaissance aircraft “Orion”. Making maneuvers near Norwegian, he accidentally touched the keel, its propeller. The wreckage of the propeller struck the fuselage of the “Orion”, after which he was forced to return to base. Su-27 with a slightly damaged keel, too, landed safely on his airfield.
The lucky coin
“It became known that one of the hijacked planes “the Boeing-757” airlines “United Airlines, flying flight 93 from Newark to San Francisco. Now he flew to Washington. And we should do everything to stop him”
So her name is really Heather Lucky penny. Sounds like Heather is the Lucky Coin, but strictly speaking, the word “coin” is written in English a little differently – penny. She is one of the first Americans who took advantage of the abolition in 1991 of a ban on women’s participation in combat missions. When it was voted the Congress, Heather studied literature at Purdue University and was preparing to become a teacher, but decided to radically change his destiny and become a military pilot. While studying in University she already had a private pilot license, she grew up in an aviation family, her father was a fighter pilot who fought in Vietnam. “I always wanted to be a fighter like my dad,” she said in an interview with The Washington Post.
Her dream came true: Heather has mastered the F-16 and became one of the first combat pilots of the USA new generation. In the morning in autumn 2001, she was a pilot in 121 squadron Air national guard of the district of Columbia, stationed at a military air base Andrews near Washington. Together with her colleagues, she took pre-flight training, when someone looked into the room and said the world trade center the plane crashed.
Date 11.09.2001 will forever be remembered contemporaries clouds of fire and smoke coming from the twin towers in new York, the silhouettes of the ships approaching them at incredibly low altitude, and after vanishing in their glass walls. A huge hole in the Pentagon dust “mushroom”, spookhouse over new York, never-ending sirens of firefighters, police officers, ambulances and other paintings, materializing out of some creepy phantasmagoria, stunning. But even more shocked that the most powerful nation surrounded by aircraft carriers, submarines, strategic bombers and missiles, equipped with the latest technology the army and the police, was hit in the “heart” from the wild group of Muslim fanatics armed with knives for opening cardboard boxes.
In the first hour after the attacks on the world trade center, the air filled with the panicky media reports about the captured terrorists of two or three, and maybe four, five, or six regular flights. No one knows where they are and where you’re going. Civil Airliners, the form of which is in the sky causes most people have pleasant associations with travelling, meetings with family and friends, suddenly became symbols of death and destruction, it is not known which of them were passenger aircraft, which has already turned into a bomb with wings. Already received a message about the attack on the Pentagon. The following objectives can be the White house or Congress. Time to think and define who is who in the skies of America, is no more. But some clarity is still there: it became known that one of the hijacked planes “the Boeing-757” airlines “United Airlines, flying flight 93 from Newark, new Jersey to San Francisco, California. Now he flew to Washington. And we should do everything to stop him.
Amazingly, in the district of the capital of the USA was not a single fighter, able to fight. Now, after the events of 9/11, such as at least two, both in “prepared”. But then Andrews was the F-16, adapted only for the execution of training flights. To deliver missiles, charge the gun – hour. This time was not. That is similar to the situation in 1960 near Sverdlovsk. Because then in the way of powers, too, stood the only aircraft able to “get” U-2, but as “andrusovskaya” F-16, he was “empty”.
The decision to fly was taken almost immediately. “Lucky, you’re with me,” threw in the direction of Heather Colonel mark Sasseville, pulling on himself a flying suit. “We’re not taught to shoot down the Airliners was told later, Sasseville in an interview with The Washington Post. – If you damage his engine, he may go to planning and to “hang on” to the target. So I thought you need to beat on the cockpit or on the wing.”
When penny shouted technicians to pulled the plugs from the inlets, the F-16 already took off the headphones on the head of the older equipment was still connected via wire to the plane, and he ran next to him, on the move pulling out of the wings safety checks. Soon, the two fighters flew over a Smoking Pentagon and at a speed of 640 kilometers per hour headed North-West, scanning the horizon in search of the flight 93 of United Airlines. To stay alive after ramming little chance. How to make so that there are more? Sasseville expected to pull the handle of the catapult in that moment, when his plane hit “Boeing-757”. “This would not have helped,” he admitted. Penny was afraid to miss the target when trying to eject before ramming. “Imagine you leave the cabin, and your fighter instead of hitting another plane flies next to him,” later, she said. Obviously fear does not do the job for her was stronger than fear of death. “I really thought that off last time in my life,” recalled Lucky.
Important clarification horrific father Heather John penny at that time was the captain of United Airlines, flying just in “Boeing-757”. So his hand could hold the steering wheel of the plane, which was going to RAM Lucky. To call my parents and ask didn’t have time. “It sounds insensitive, we are talking about my father, later she said,” but I had no way of knowing who was piloting that plane. And honestly, even if I know it will have no effect on what I was supposed to do.”
Neither Mark nor Heather had to sacrifice their lives to stop the hijacked flight 93 of United Airlines. This made them the passengers of the flight, leaving one of the fields of Pennsylvania imprint of his feat in the form of burnt-out spots, littered with debris. But to completely avoid and not become a reality for the horror of having to kill a loved one’s Lucky, they failed. Later it turned out that the captain of the ‘ 93 flight were Jason Gave one of the best friends John penny, with whom they trained together for flying “United”.
So, from Nesterov to the Lucky penny. You need to have an extraordinary imagination to imagine the path of world aviation from stitched in haste “whatnots” of the First world, labor at engine, to aircraft that can fly almost three times faster than a speeding bullet, to get into the stratosphere and hit several targets simultaneously.
But with all the changes that have occurred in aviation, in one it remained unchanged – the military task, which sometimes need to be solved at any cost, even if the price is the life of the pilot. This means that while there is a military aircraft, the RAM will stay in her arms as a last resort run pilots “of their work.”Related posts: