Erdogan has decided on an extremely important political step to reform the Turkish intelligence and counterintelligence. And it is clear: intelligence agencies, in fact, slept through an attempted coup. The system itself is Turkish intelligence is very peculiar, and its reform must take into account many local and purely Turkish features.
On the eve of the Turkish President stated that the security service and intelligence agencies of the country – MIT – will be reformed due to errors and lack of professionalism that is displayed after an unsuccessful attempt of a military coup. This decision arose for a long time, and now to him (as always in Turkey) was mixed with the personal factor. During the coup, Erdogan could not get through to the head of MIT, not to mention the fact that counterintelligence banal slept an extensive conspiracy in the army.
“Langley is historically considered the Turkish special services are unreliable by definition and share information extremely reluctant”
So far, the talk of reform, MIT has been reduced to the division of the structure into two unequal parts – the external intelligence and counterintelligence. At the same time in Turkey’s own intelligence have virtually all law enforcement agencies, for example, the national police and gendarmerie. In the area of responsibility of the MIT within the country is to fight against terrorism, Communist and far-right movements, as well as with the separatists, first and foremost, of course, with the Kurds. Other “intelligence” are mostly applied activities.
The exact number and budget of MIT outside the office of the Prime Minister are unknown, but presumably the state of the organization can reach up to 8-10 thousand people, and the cost – up to $ 300 million per year. Now the activities of the service determined by the law of 1984, which Chapter (Advisor) subordinated to the Prime Minister. It is this system of subordination and wants to change Erdogan reassigned MIT to the President, and it already requires a constitutional amendment.
Now we can say that the allocation intelligence in the self-structure will change little in the system and style of work of MIT. This move, of course, increase the personal responsibility of the leadership of the new Agency, but it is not a panacea. In some places under certain conditions is triggered (as in Russia, for example), but only in the presence of a reputable professional at the head of an independent foreign intelligence and have the same political weight in the elite of the country (in Russia, this role was played by Yevgeny Primakov). And in modern Turkey might not work due to local circumstances.
The work of the Turkish foreign intelligence strongly tied to the diasporas, in addition, the system of residency was organized under a pan-Turkic ideas, the primacy of the promotion on the planet and the dispute between Erdogan and Gulen. Hence the accusations from the Turkish President to address the fugitive preacher that gülen “insiders” in the power structures of Turkey.
In General it’s true. Moreover, the Gulen organization and affiliated with him funds, schools and other entities engaged in the cultivation of personnel for over twenty years, and in some places had already had two generations of people brought up within nudistskiy value system and focused on pan-Turkist ideas in their soft, unobtrusive form. The number of educational institutions creates a situation where teachers and professors work those people who once were themselves the first students in the Gulen and, in the broad sense of the word, nudistskij and other pan-Turkic schools. This is partly linked and perpetrated by Erdogan’s mass terror in educational institutions, and closure of all army schools, to be replaced by a single military Academy.
Until last month the main personnel reserve MIT was the law faculty of Ankara University, private University, Bilkent, boğaziçi and middle East technical universities. MIT actively exploited by the private foreign policy Institute, who are funded by the government, enjoys political support. Candidates for admission to the MIT staff must have two recommendations from current employees, which, in addition to characteristics of business and personal qualities, certainly indicates the political reliability of candidates and their loyalty to the national interests of Turkey.
This system has played a cruel joke MIT. In the regions, entering into service in counterintelligence had become not even in the mechanism of corruption and in the pure Oriental kind of the same – the prevailing cronyism and nepotism. Relatives give each other the required recommendations for admission, and in some regions in one and the same unit can serve both as a grandfather, father and grandson, not to mention the sons-in-law and nephews. And it’s not just the prestige. Entering into service at MIT is extremely beneficial from a financial point of view, because the local branch of the counterintelligence turned into “power roof” for crime, especially smuggling. Initially, the smugglers were used as sources of information, in gratitude for what was covered.
In General, the structure of the MIT, overloaded with unnecessary functions of critical and corrupt. The government turned a blind eye, believing that whatever the kids played, but would work worked, and who here is without sin. Constant crashes MIT really had the character of the system of the disaster – until the military coup. Now the actions of Erdogan can be considered fair.
That to foreign intelligence, it even bears the stamp of the organizational characteristic “twitchin”. Its headquarters, which is now expected to be allocated in a separate structure, consists of two departments – Department of Middle East and Asia and the division of Europe. 1st division, in turn, consists of branches, operating on the Caucasian and Central Asian republics of the former USSR, Iran and Iraq, and offices, occupied by Syria, Lebanon and other middle Eastern countries. The device conditionally “European” section is more interesting. Its first office is engaged exclusively in Greece, Cyprus and Balkan countries, the second – the rest of the West, with Germany isolated in a separate structure because of the uniqueness of the Turkish Diaspora in this country, and historical ties between Berlin and Ankara.
Management on Affairs of the CIS was created in 1992, during the year we opened the residency in Baku, Tbilisi, Bishkek, Tashkent, Almaty, Ashgabat. Residency in a friendly Azerbaijan has rapidly become the “center of cooperation”, but in some peripheral residency, which became a sinecure, appointed people are not too professional for obvious corrupt reasons.
In any case, the current cadre MIT is an integral part of the military – political elite of Turkish society, who grew up on the ideas of pan-Turkism and simultaneously turned their social position in the capitalization of personal and family status.
Another thing is that since the mid 90-ies at the head stood the MIT intelligence personnel, some of whom have passed specialized training in the United States. In the era of Erdogan, they were replaced by “ideological proof”, checked the footage, despite the fact that the professional level of these employees has been steadily falling. MIT technical equipment leaves much to be desired, but the bulk of electronic information supplied to Turkey from the CIA in the interagency exchange. But Langley is historically considered the Turkish special services are unreliable by definition and share information very reluctantly. Now, after the accusations against one of the American generals, who allegedly led the rebels almost personally, and it may be a question of the revision of the nature of the relationship between the CIA and MIT.
You must understand that it’s just vnutriuretrale conflicts associated with competition between the two major ideological-political clans (Erdogan and Gulen), which, in fact, pursue the same strategic goal – Turkism and the gradual drift of Turkey towards Islamization. And if Gulen has always enjoyed a specific support of the CIA (historically in the period of the struggle against “Communist threat”), “group Erdogan” – the clan is relatively young and less ideologically savvy. Preachers – Sufi sheikhs, created over the past quarter century a full-fledged state in the state (including through the educational system, achieving state funding of schools, the Imam-khatypov) is much more beneficial to look at the background of straightforward, brutal and “unprincipled” Erdogan.
So the reform of MIT, most likely, will not lead to administrative improvements in the work of counterintelligence and intelligence, but just fix the victory of one clan over another. In Turkey, as in most Eastern countries with a heavy historical heritage, all this is accompanied by moral terror, layoffs and sophisticated indoctrination of what is happening. But the essence will not change.Related posts: