The Kremlin is waiting for a big change. It will be a place where Muscovites and guests of the capital can easily walk, enjoying the views. And if desired, visitors can descend into the secret cellars of the Kremlin and wander through it, examining ancient artifacts.
And the new Kremlin square surrounded by roses and pine trees, right in front of the Windows of the office of the head of state set up the cross. Huge, majestic and extremely beautiful.
His sketch in the beginning of the last century was created by artist Vasnetsov. Experts are sure that now is the time to restore a cross on the drawings of the great masters and put there, where it stood until it was demolished by the revolutionaries…
The idea of “updating” the Kremlin was born after in may the President of Russia Vladimir Putin himself went down to the dungeons on the site of the dismantled 14th corps and then took a walk around the Park, broken up over them.
HELP “MK”: “31 Jul 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin took the decision to dismantle 14th building of the Kremlin, which is considered “remakes” – was built in the 30-ies of XX century. At the same time was voiced the idea of restoring once existed at this place and Chudovoho Voznesensky monastery. However, later it was decided to convert this into a square. Russian authorities initially kept up to date with all of the ideas of UNESCO, while the 14th corps is not included in the list of world heritage sites. To oppose the dismantling of an international organization did not.”
The President, in dungeon
17 may 2016 the President came in his working residence in the Kremlin, as usual. Rather, he went there as an ordinary person and not as head of state. He walked through the Spassky gate. And once in the Park, who pitched in place of the 14th corps. Said to have been affected. Watched approvingly and constantly smiling.
– If you only knew what a tremendous work that led to it, – says the official representative of the office of the President of the Russian Federation Elena Krylova. – 1100 (the number of the whole regiment) was dismantled in the 14th corps! 50 trucks every day took out the debris (more than 1000 tonnes in total). It was necessary to do so to avoid damage to the Kremlin wall and historical buildings that are close by.
The key that was used by the ancient inhabitants of the Kremlin.
It was even more difficult to break into the vacant space, a Park or square (call it both). And here’s why. Simultaneously with the device of the square were conducted archaeological excavations, and we had to plant trees so that they this process is not interfered with.
The concept of improvement and landscaping were finally identified based on archaeologists, the historical buildings of the Chudov and Voznesensky monasteries, continues Krylov. – The foundations of temples marked on the plot with hedges of arborvitae Danica spherical. In General, every Bush and every flower in the Park is the only suitable place for him given the fact that under him.
The square sits on the site of the dismantled 14th corps of the Kremlin, which in turn was built on the site of the demolished Chudov and Voznesensky monasteries.
“Just been planted in the Park:
Blue spruce blue “Glauca” -18 PCs.
Coniferous shrubs (mountain pine, juniper Cossack, virgin globular thuja) – 2502 PCs
Deciduous shrubs (including lilac “Beauty of Moscow”, “Madame Lemoine” spirea cultivar “Alba”, “Anthony Waterer”, “gold mound”, “Gresham”) – 297 PCs
Rose Floribunda – 1177 PCs.
Begonia Vale of eternal blossoms – 21350 PCs.
Total area of improvement – 16 of 300.0 m2
Green area – 11 m2 292,6
The device tracks -2 870,0 m2″.
On the spot 14 the case of the Kremlin broke square (8 photos)
The President then may morning, walked not only in the garden, but went down to the dungeons of the 14th corps, which was erected on the site of ancient Chudovoho and Voznesensky monasteries, where there were miracles, who later became the basis for many legends).
– Chudov monastery in the middle Ages was called “great Lavra”, considering the spiritual center of the state of Moscow, – says Advisor to the Director of the Federal security service Sergei Devyatov. – This monastery was the most sacred place for the “teeth”. Here are just a few facts about it: there are baptized children of kings, then was cast out by Patriarch Nikon, here in the dungeons of the decade held notable prisoners. So when we started excavations at the site of the 14th corps, we never doubted that we are waiting for the artifacts.
Chudov monastery in the middle Ages was called “great Lavra”, considering the spiritual center of the Moscow state.
Do research on the site of the dismantled 14th building of the Kremlin was developed by the Institute of archaeology in December of 2015, and now they are almost complete. In the basement uncovered area of about 500 sq. m. so, what has been discovered by archaeologists and revealed to the President?
First, about 100 burials of the necropolis of the monastery of XV-XVII centuries the Skeletons of unknown monks once prayed in the Kremlin about the salvation of Russia, which were buried in the Chudov monastery. Who were these ascetics, hermits? What brought them here? When they sat with the world? Alas, no names, no dates. Technology now allows the bones to determine not only their age, but also what kind of lifestyle were dead than fed. But it still takes time.
The Foundation of pre-Mongol period.
– Some burials in sarcophagi of white stone with a semicircular headboards – say researchers at the Institute of archaeology. – We believe that there are buried representatives of the secular aristocracy, the most famous boyar families. After all, the necropolis occupied the entire Central part of the monastery, so it was a place of burial, not only monks. But as for specific names… sorry, over burials, no tombstones with inscriptions. Except for one thing.
Scientists are referring to the tombstone, was found in the basement of one of the columns. It belongs to Vasiliy Glebovich Saltykov, who died, as it is written in stone, “In the German state under Paida”. This means that the grave for almost five centuries.
It looks like the headstone of the deceased during the battle of boyar Saltykov.
Director of the Institute of archaeology, doctor of historical Sciences Nikolay Makarov explained that Vasily Saltykov mentioned in the list with the names of those killed during the capture of Russian troops in 1573 the fortress Paida during the assault that killed Malyuta Skuratov (the most famous event of the Livonian war).
Secret underground labels
But graves with the remains — not only the archaeologists ‘ find. They found areas with cultural layer, containing so-called “net ware” izgotovleniya Finnish population of the Moscow river basin in the first Millennium BC, long before the Kremlin hill of the Slavs and the beginning of medieval city life.
The burial of one of the monks: the remains are well preserved under a three-meter layer of earth.
Stratigraphy of cultural deposits has a unique safety and for the first time allows us to trace the stages of development of the Eastern part of the Kremlin hill, the dynamics of the early life of Moscow, say the archaeologists. In the near future, with the help of experts in radiocarbon Dating, soil scientists, geochemists, we will be able to more accurately date individual strata and determine their origin.
Fragments of the refectory, the gallery, dated XV-XVI centuries, parts of the terracotta reliefs that decorated the Cathedral of the Miracle of Archangel Michael – man in the street this may be a little about what you say, but for the scientific community, these findings are priceless.
– From the cultural layer demonstrado time we found hundreds of artifacts, including jewelry and objects of daily use, knives, keys, locks, more than 200 fragments of glass bracelets, a style for writing, a book clasp, ‘ continued the Institute of archaeology. – All preserved just in amazing condition!
The President of many of these artifacts are picked up. He especially liked a stone mould for casting metal weights where you scratched half a dozen letters. Read there, alas, only four letters “RIAN”. What this means is a clear answer yet to the head of the state none of the scientists could not give.
– It is a tradition to sign molds existed among jewelers, but the findings of such forms in ancient cities numerous, – the expert continues. – The master using the mold found in the Kremlin, was trying to scratch his name on it. The mold of the excavation originating from the cultural layer of the late XII – early XIII century, bears the oldest known inscription (although unreadable) made in Moscow, and represents the first evidence of the appearance of writing on the Kremlin hill.
People to be able to see all this, decided to create an underground Museum. However, not even the Museum, and a Museum complex. FSO saying that it could be a network of interconnected underground tunnels of the rooms. Each of which will be exhibited exhibits beaten to it era.
The path to the Kremlin and the monument to
To enter the Kremlin from red square through the Spassky gate saints to sit on the bench in the Kremlin Park? Still about such, none of Muscovites and guests of the capital and could not dream. As: I want to get to the Kremlin to buy a ticket to the museums and go on a strictly defined route (either to the left or right!). But everything will change now.
In UDP and FSO are now developing new tourist routes in the Kremlin. One of the simplest — walking on the red square could easily go through the Spassky gate in the Kremlin and there to wander through the Park. They will not need to buy tickets. The only difficulty of this idea is to increase the capacity of the gate of the Spasskaya tower (now through them to the Kremlin is not allowed, only through Borovitskaya and Kutafya). This is supposed to make an extended entrance, like the one that is now at the gates of the Kutafia tower.
Another idea is to be organized, paid tours on the route Aleksandrovsky garden, Red square, the Kremlin square with an underground Museum.”
But the highlight of the excursions will probably cross.
– 4 Feb 1905 in the Kremlin, was assassinated Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov, – says Sergey Devyatov. – He was killed in a bomb explosion that made the terrorist Kalyaev. The remains of the Prince were buried in the Chudov monastery, and the place of death is given up. A sketch of this cross, which became the monument was created by artist Vasnetsov. Extraordinarily beautiful, standing on three-tiered podium, he became one of the symbol of the Kremlin. But it carried first during the revolutionary events in 1918 year.
The cross itself is not preserved — according to some, it melted. But scientists have found not just the sketches and original design material of the memorial cross. And now the question of his recovery.Related posts: