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Thursday, October 27, 2016

Rembrandt is not a crook: great painter stood up Russian art

Article denouncing Rembrandt and many other great painters of the Renaissance and Baroque cheating while writing their self-portraits that appeared in the Journal of Optics.

A group of authors from the UK have put forward the version that the photographic precision painters tended to draw pictures for what is called a zero, and write them on the already reflected, designed, curved mirrors lines.

Illustration — Francis O’neill

Specialist Oxford Francis O’neill is an independent researcher in London, Sofia Palazzo corner has analyzed all of the possible optical technologies available to the artists of the XVI-XVII centuries, in which they could do projections of their reflections on canvas. Scientists say that they could be sets of lenses, curved mirrors and a pinhole camera. The greatest suspicion “is not a purely manual work,” O’neill corner and called Rembrandt. In particular, they focused on the self-portraits of the artist, cut on a sheet of copper on the surface which can be easy to see this projection. It is created easy with the aid of two mirrors and the incident light beam. For example, the artist sits in front of the canvas (or sheet of copper), puts it behind her usual flat mirror, and in front, slightly away from the canvas, sets a concave mirror. The image of his face is shown in a distorting mirror, is reflected in regular and he is sent in the form of light and shadow contrast on the smooth surface of copper.

Illustration — Francis O’neill

Their arguments, the researchers acknowledge the fact that many self-portraits Rembrandt looks in the direction that would be very difficult to see and write, if he just looked in the mirror. Further proof of his innocence they believe a violation of proportions between the large head of the artist and other parts of the picture that could also be due to the distorting effect of the lens.

Reached what Francis O’neill, he teaches painting at Oxford, conducted a series of experiments to prove that his theory is correct, and the magic effect of the paintings of the master of light and shadow Rembrandt still has more to do with optics, not with the magic of art.

By the way, the idea that the masters of the Renaissance are often secretly used mirrors to create a Hyper realistic paintings, made in 2001 by acclaimed British artist David Hockney and Professor of optical Sciences at the University of Arizona (USA) Charles Falco.

To confirm the version about the possibility of painting using crooked mirrors, we asked the Physical Institute. Lebedev Academy of Sciences (FIAN).

– No big deal, ” says physicist Leonid CHAIKA. Since lenses appeared in Europe 800 years ago, it is possible that their properties were not only scientists, optics, and artists. Using conventional and concave mirrors in bright light, you get the picture standing in front of you on the sheet. If you stand, for example, next to a copper sheet, a little to the right and farther away from it, sits a man whose portrait you want to write, put behind a concave mirror and you have to “canvas” there will be a projection of his image. When you create a self-portrait to catch his own chiaroscuro is much more difficult as the artist himself during working have to move and turn my head.

Review doctor of arts, Professor, head of the Department of art old masters of the State Museum of fine arts. Vadim Pushkin SADKOVA:

Creating your self-portrait, the artist can not use the optics. Their reflection in the mirrors and wrote Albrecht dürer, who lived at the turn of XV-XVI centuries, and Francesco Parmigianino (the first third of the XVI century). The latter has depicted himself in the distorting mirror of a hundred years before Rembrandt. But this method cannot be called Scam artists had to draw themselves with the reflection in the mirror. No projections on the canvas can not be! If we’re talking about self-portraits on the etchings, i.e., metal engravings and graphic art, which had been a Rembrandt, despite the assurances of British scientists, no one critic will agree that the artist used any unfair techniques. First, to get his reflection on the metal sheet very hard, especially if it is covered with wax mastic on which the engraver needles causes the strokes of the future image. Second, even assuming that the copper sheet could be polished to a mirror Shine, then to apply the finishing touches of the future portrait, then prove it in relation to Rembrandt or some other engraver we do not understand. The fact that in the process of creating prints copper sheet, which is imprinted on paper, once again becoming opaque.

Illustration — Francis O’neill

Anyway, the initiator of the controversial study of the artist from Oxford O’neill’s is already showered with spears of criticism. “People accuse me of jealousy, in an attempt to discredit the Rembrandt. But that’s not really what I’m trying to do,” he says in justification. – If the first that fell on the street man to give a projection and ask for her portrait, the masterpiece of Rembrandt we’ll never get. I am far from trying to undermine the authority of the artists, just pay attention to the fact that the use of optics compels us to look at the artists, like scientists.”

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