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Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Hands of the Sudanese peoples war among themselves, the US and China


The youngest country in the world – South Sudan – once again plunges into civil war and is on the verge of mass slaughter. It is quite typical for the continent ethnic conflict is complicated by the fact that a full-scale war is profitable the main international players – Washington as weakening the position of its main competitor – China.

For almost a week in Juba, the capital of South Sudan does not stop the shooting. Streets are patrolled by tanks. Some districts handle artillery. The airport is blocked, the aircraft can neither take off nor land. In the city centre of fierce fighting: the rebels had attacked the residence of the President, in turn, government forces fired from helicopters and tanks, the Vice President’s residence. Residents of the capital with thousands fleeing to a refugee camp, an outdoor UN. The total number of victims, according to some data, has exceeded three hundred people.

“The UN security Council, the United States repeatedly blocked attempts to impose an embargo on arms supplies to the warring parties”

Fighting among themselves all the same formations, which from 2013 through 2015, the year fought with each other civil war – rebels Vice-President Rijeka Machar and government troops, the President Salwa Kiir. Both leaders have already ordered his soldiers to cease fire, but the soldiers did not obey. Civilians hope street battles in the capital due to the non-payment of salaries to military and will soon cease. Otherwise, South Sudan risks once again slipping into the abyss of a bloody civil war, which managed to escape just in the past year.

South Sudan is the youngest country in the world. It gained independence on 9 July 2011 after almost 99% of its residents voted for secession from the state of Sudan. This was preceded by bloody fight North and South Sudan among themselves, which began almost immediately after the country’s liberation from British control in 1956. To the North ran the Arab majority, pursuing a policy of Islamization of the whole country. In the South the Arabs were opposed by the black population, who did not want to change Christianity and their traditional beliefs. The first civil war lasted from 1955 to 1972-th year and cost the country half a million dead. South then managed to win themselves the right to autonomy, and the subsequent ten years the country enjoyed a period of truce, and relative calm.

The second civil war, which began in 1983, was 22 years and claimed over two million lives. More than four million people have become refugees. Potentially one of the richest countries in Africa, Sudan has slipped into poverty and lived in a state enduring a humanitarian catastrophe.

The efforts of the world community to the ongoing massacre managed to slow down. The country was introduced by UN peacekeepers. Diplomats of the leading countries, primarily the USA and China, managed to convince the belligerents to conclude in 2005, the Naivasha peace agreement. South Sudan gained even more autonomy and a respite of six years, which somehow managed to establish on its territory a state machine. But by 2011 it became clear that the divorce does not be avoided. European countries and the United States have welcomed the upcoming referendum on the independence of southern Sudan, and promised support for the new state. The referendum was held, South Sudan gained independence and was admitted to the UN.

It would seem that life is getting better. The new government has at its disposal an area approximately equal to France, and 75 % of all oil wells in the Sudan. In addition to actively explored and exploited hydrocarbon reserves, the new Republic also had rich deposits of chrome, zinc, gold, silver and diamonds. However, since independence, has not passed also two years as South Sudan plunged again into a bloody intra-ethnic showdown, this time in its own territory. First of all, each other against the largest tribes of South Sudan – the Dinka and Nuer. It turned out that the country’s President Salva Kiir, himself a native of the Dinka, pulling him in power and the army leadership exclusively fellow. In December 2013, the President ousted Vice-President Rijeka Machar belonging to the Nuer, accusing the coup attempt. The army was split roughly in half: Dinka remained loyal to the President, a Nuer went for Vice-President. After the army splintered and the country – began another civil war.

However, to call a war is a bloody mess did not turn the language. The genocide of entire tribes (so, the White army Nuer promised to erase from the face of the earth tribe, the Murle, in order to “ensure the safety of their livestock), the burning of villages together with their inhabitants, torture and mass murder of civilians, cannibalism, rape and looting, so from December 2013 to August 2015go look daily life of the young state. Supporters of Machar called rebels, those who supported Salva Kiir, government troops, but the unspeakable cruelty showed, and those and others. The result of their confrontation began more than fifty thousand dead, millions of refugees and displaced persons, famine and epidemics.

But it is not only in ethnic strife and tribalism, typical of Africa. According to many analysts, the bloody history of southern Sudan caused by the conflict of major external players. The largest investor in the oil sector is large Sudan for a long time is China and its state-owned company China National Petroleum Corporation. From 1999 to 2007, China has invested in the economy of the Sudan at least $ 15 billion. But the oil deposits are located mainly in the South, so the China National Petroleum Corporation built a pipeline from the South to the North, and long-time Sudan was one of the largest foreign suppliers of oil to China.

Against this background, in the United States, and active lobbyists of idea of a referendum on independence for southern Sudan. According to American strategists, the acquisition of southern sovereignty has significantly weakened the position of China in Sudan, and indeed in Africa. First, all Chinese investment contracts were concluded with the President of Sudan, and now most of the oil went to South Sudan. Second, the pipelines that China was pumping oil was in the neighboring country that it was created by familiar relations with Ukraine the problem of transit.

The same end – of chaos of the situation, problems with the extraction and supply of oil – was a civil war. Not coincidentally, the US and European countries in this conflict is clearly supported Vice-President Machar, prudently seized the oil fields, while China was on the side of President Kiir in the hope that it will provide at least some order in the country. Special detail – the UN security Council, the U.S. side has repeatedly blocked attempts to impose an embargo on arms supplies to the warring parties.

In may 2015, Kiir and Machar failed to agree on a truce and sign an agreement on the settlement of the ethnic conflict. The contract was with many reservations, has been repeatedly violated by both sides, but some semblance of a fragile peace still occurred. President Kiir has been the President, Vice-President Machar – Vice-President. In April of this year, Machar returned to Juba to perform their duties, and promised the country to get rid of the “vicious war”. Then met his men released into the air dozens of doves – symbols of peace.

Today in Juba, go street fighting. Killed about three hundred people. The fate of the doves is unknown.

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