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Sunday, October 23, 2016

Magnetic field and solid to the core: what are Jupiter’s mysteries will reveal “Juno”

Recently on the Internet was published a picture of Jupiter and most of its largest satellites, a space probe Juno, which has recently reached the orbit of the gas giant. In this regard, several more to remember the order of the flight of the automatic station and the history of the study of the largest neighbour of our planet in the Solar system.

photo: ru.wikipedia.org

Jupiter, the fifth planet from the Sun and the nearest gas giant. It is 11 times larger than Earth in diameter and more than 300 times by weight that makes Jupiter the largest planet in its solar orbit. According to some, Jupiter has a maximum diameter, which could have a planet with similar structure and history. Every 12 years Jupiter briefly becomes the third luminance object in the night sky, second only to the moon and Venus.

Like the other planets (except Earth), as well as a dwarf planet, the name of Jupiter dates back to Greco-Roman mythology it got its name after the Roman Supreme deity, patron of daylight and thunderstorms. The four largest satellites of Jupiter, open even Galileo Galilei, bear the names of mistresses and lover of Zeus (Zeus in Greek mythology corresponds to the Roman Jupiter) IO, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. All of the gas giant to date, 67 discovered moons.

The existence of Jupiter people knew from ancient times, but for the first time to see it “close” for the first time was only in 1972, when it reached the American research probe Pioneer 10. This space station was the first to have developed sufficient speed to overcome the force of attraction of the Sun, which allowed her to pass by the gas giant, take a picture of it and conduct some measurements. In the future, the planet was visited by” probes “Voyager 1”, “Voyager 2”, “Ulysses” and “Cassini” and space station “Galileo” was the first and until very recently the only vehicle that entered the orbit of this planet — with this probe information about Pluto and its satellites were collected from 1995 to 2003. In 2007, Jupiter was the New Horizons probe.

All of these spacecraft, combined with observations using modern telescopes allowed us to accumulate a lot of information about Jupiter and its moons. However, by using the probe Juno, whose name in the Russian language sometimes translated as “Juno” and sometimes as “Juno” is expected, will allow to answer many key questions about the gas giant and probably the Solar system as a whole.

The space station received its name in honor of another Roman patron goddess of women, family and motherhood, and wife of Jupiter. Many people observe the course of the mission, have appreciated the irony behind the name — the wife of a deity sent to my husband, surrounded by the mistresses (in honor of whom, as mentioned above, was named the largest satellites of Jupiter). However, professionals working with Juno, and they consider this name to a spacecraft is highly symbolic: they hope that Juno will penetrate the eyes through the clouds that shrouded himself Jupiter, and see its true nature — it is astrophysics wrote in a press release issued on August 5, 2011, after probe was sent into space.

It is assumed that the budget for the mission Juno will be about a billion dollars.

Unlike all previous missions to Jupiter, “Juno” uses radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and solar panels. Although far away from the Earth they are 25 times less effective, modern technology allows stations to obtain sufficient amount of energy even in these conditions. Also on Board are two lithium-ion battery required to support the operation of the apparatus when it is in the shade.

The equipment installed at the station, will allow you to “peek” into the deep layers of atmosphere of Jupiter, to study the Aurora (by orders of magnitude more intense than the earth), to record the distribution of ions of hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and sulfur at the poles, and learn about the features of the gravitational field of the planet. One of the most interesting challenges facing the station, you can call the testing of the hypothesis about the presence of Jupiter’s solid core. In addition, the mission will allow you to compile a wind map and a map of the distribution of mass on Jupiter and will also help to calculate the water content and ammonia in the gas giant’s atmosphere.

Went to Jupiter nearly 5 years ago, the probe “Juno” at the beginning of this year was the most remote from Land the aircraft on solar energy. All in all, in order to reach the orbit of Jupiter, the station traveled 2.8 billion miles is 18.5 times greater than the distance from the sun to the Earth. Finally, on 5 July, the spacecraft successfully entered the orbit of a gas giant and is now transferred from it to the Ground first images.

Maximum convergence of the probe with the planet scheduled for 27 August and 19 October, the machine will go from 53-day orbit to a 14-day. It is expected to collect information about the largest planet in the Solar system it will be until February 2018, after which the station will be sent to the gas giant’s atmosphere where it will burn. This precaution, as explained by experts, will allow to exclude the probability of collision is “Juno” with one of the four largest satellites, some of which (especially in Europe), according to some versions can be life. After the machine stop working, scientists will need several years to process all obtained with the help information.

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