Exactly 170 years ago, the United States announced the annexation of California, now the most populous and richest of your state, and then Mexico. This was done in the framework of the war with a neighbor, sometimes took the form of “hybrid” and unleashed by the United States in the hunt for alien lands. Analysis of those events is extremely important for understanding modern politics of Washington.
In July 1846 th after the start of the Mexican-American war to the coast of Mexican California, arrived in the US Navy. Landing on the shore, the Americans have not found the Mexican army, but saw a strange flag, on which was depicted a grizzly bear. It turned out that for three weeks the authorities in the region (or in a substantial part of it) belongs to the independent Republic of California, friendly to the United States and war with Mexico for their independence.
“Abstracts Adams, Jr., was frankly told at the Russian Consulate, it is replete with overtures to St. Petersburg, but the center of attention of the Secretary of state was not Russia”
Mutinied against the government of Mexico, a young researcher and captain of the U.S. army John Fremont, a few months before that, the head 70 well-armed “surveyors” have made the transition through the Mojave desert. A group of Fremont was joined by local migrants from the United States, as well as part is unhappy with the President Santa Anna and the Mexicans. Together they managed to seize power, the benefit of the Mexican President was not up to Californians – it was filled with all the rage of the young United States.
In the North the United States opposition-minded citizens saw the war against Mexico, the machinations of the slave owners, who wanted, according to American poet James Lowell, “California chop off to slavery to impose, humiliate you on the sly, Rob and rope twist”. The opposition is blatantly slandered Fremont a slaveholder was not. On the contrary, in the future he will be the star of this very opposition, the first candidate for the presidency of the young Republican party and the first politician of such a level that favors the abolition of slavery.
But it was still ahead, and while, for decency having conferred with fellow revolutionaries, Fremont reported the American command, to be free im tired. Nobody has never recognized the Republic, having existed for less than a month, was abolished, it was replaced by the state of California in the United States. The assignment of these territories Mexico recognizes only two years later – after American forces take Mexico city. The war the United States has become a third more, and Mexico lost half its territory.
Americans dispute between themselves
In December 1823, for a quarter century before the Mexican war, President James Monroe read his annual message to Congress. His speech was devoted to U.S. foreign policy, and wrote it Secretary of state John Quincy Adams – a former Ambassador in St. Petersburg and son of the second President of the United States. Abstracts Adams, Jr., was frankly told at the Russian Consulate, it is replete with overtures to St. Petersburg, but the center of attention of the Secretary of state was not Russia. Spanish colonial Empire was crumbling before our eyes, and it was obvious that soon in America formed many new independent States. Also, America entered into a dispute over land to Oregon, which included not only the namesake modern state, but also the whole North-West USA and British Columbia (i.e., the Western part of present-day Canada).
Originally the territory of Oregon was claimed by three countries – Russia, Britain and Spain. Later they were joined by the United States. Spanish claims were purchased by the Americans. Russian, bargained for a favorable border, the dispute was eliminated, numericas to push the forehead of Britain and the young United States.
It Monroe, in a nutshell, boiled down to the fact that the US does not pretend to already existing colonies, but if a colony has gained sovereignty, the Europeans have no right to interfere in its Affairs is an internal affair of the Americans. The same applies to the territories yet uninhabited, where the border is not yet demarcated. Between the lines, frankly says: “Intervene only we have the right because we have democracy here, and you European of Tirana, hands off.
The President was called “the Monroe doctrine”. On the principles laid down in it, by and large, still the entire US foreign policy, though the doctrine was officially assessed as incorrect under President Obama, as President, Adams had to regret it during his lifetime. However, now a “zone of influence” is not the American continent, and almost the entire planet. And in Russia, that saw in the States natural counterbalance Britain in the region, only seventy years later realized that he had grown on his head.
“So far from God so close to US”
The fate of the United States and Mexico in the first half of the nineteenth century were different, and, in Mexico, it was much more interesting. After the seizure of Spain by Napoleon’s troops in 1808-m all the colonies broke out of the national liberation uprising, sometimes very successful, but the Mexican establishment sat tight and kept the situation under control – a brave General Agustin Iturbide beat the rebels wherever had time to catch up.
In 1814, after Napoleon’s defeat it was supposed to calm down, but in 1820, the year in Madrid there was a revolution of its own. To dethrone the king did not, but was forced to liquidate majority and other remnants of the feudal system, to restore the Constitution of 1812, the year and start taking land from the monasteries of the Mother – the Roman Catholic Church. The heart of the descendant of the conquistadors and zealous Catholic, such abuse could not stand and brave General Iturbide seized power, proclaimed the Mexican Empire, with himself at the head. The territory of the new state was more than decent in the North it is bordered by Oregon to the South with Panama.
First, Iturbide was Regent, but on second thought, declared himself Emperor Agustin I. Shortly before the Regent made the rank of General a young (27 years old) and talented martial of Antonio lópez de Santa Anna. The future monarch did it in vain, because two years later Santa Anna at the head of the loyal troops came to Mexico city to overthrow the Emperor. In the name of stability and the inevitable people’s happiness Empire was abolished, Mexico had been a Republic, and the former Majesty were sent to Italy, however, decent at the time content. Two years later, agustín will try to return to lead the royalist insurrection, but is captured and executed.
Began shortly after the era of coups does not make sense to describe in detail. But note an important point – every time military support to the conspirators provided Santa Anna, managing the same people first lead to power, and then overthrow, often twice. On the basis of the principle of life “to always be with the winners, this Napoleon of the West (the nickname Santa Anna invented for himself) had built up their power after every revolution and in total visited the presidency 11 times. Mexico rapidly lost territory, and in 1824, the year a state of their own formed the United Provinces of Central America (modern Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and California Los Altos).
Santa Anna was so conceited, as there are only Latin American military. But being an outright dictator in the soul was a sincere liberal. For example, could not tolerate slavery, which in Mexico is not without its participation was banned in 1829-M. Tried wherever possible to take away the land from the Catholic Church and to fight for the rights of ordinary people. But any rebellion was drowned in blood without mercy. In General, the figure was progressive, but stupid.
In 1835, the year Santa Anna started a reform, which was to strengthen his power even more, but the idea led to a series of revolts in the regions. With most of them the Napoleon of the West, as a truly capable military, coped easily, but broke off the teeth of Texas. For Texas was someone to stand up.
In the United States at the same time, it was noticeably duller. No one is toppled, only occasionally the deputies beat each other’s faces right in Congress and fought duels outside its walls.
In the days of the American Revolution, followed two prominent political centre of Massachusetts and Virginia, which now “pulls the blanket”. These centers were recognized leaders – John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, a strange friendship-feud which lasted more than half a century. May the sincere sympathy and respect, who are implacable political rivals fed each other and gave the young United States to go the way of Mexico. Died two of the founding father on the same day – July 4, 1826, the year in the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, sponsored by the was. To continue their conflict had heirs. John Quincy Adams, like his father, was President one term, losing the election of 1828, the year the new leader of jeffersonton – General Andrew Jackson, hero of the war of 1812, the year of Britain (then the British burned the White House, but the Canadians insist that the White House was burned them).
If there is any one word that can describe America in the first half of the nineteenth century, this “growth”. The population has doubled every twenty years, the GDP of every fifteen. In the North because of the abundance of land and lack of workers to actively introduce mechanical work, such approach gave a smaller crop per acre, but more on man-hours, and in Europe, where land is never enough, was impossible. Grew rapidly and the banking sector, to replace the artisan masters came factory production. High mechanization of work demanded a high level of education and the fortieth years 90% (in the North – 95%) of a white population able to read and to think in Europe these figures had reached the end of the century, and in Russia this problem has managed to solve only the Bolsheviks. South slightly lagged behind technological development (though, for example, the speed of the laying of railroads in the South, only the North and was lost by being ahead of the rest of the planet), but there was your driver of the economy – cotton prices too have doubled approximately every decade. America has become not only the most competent and technically advanced country on the planet, but also one of the most populated, from the Western countries, it is conceded on this indicator only Russia and France.
Naturally, to continue this rapid growth was necessary the earth, and eventually earth was not enough. Especially in the South, where everything was plowed under the tobacco and cotton plantations. After coming to power, General Jackson began to drive the Indians from their ancestral lands and to support separatist sentiments in neighbouring countries. In the first place, in Mexico. And in full accordance with the “Monroe doctrine” written by his sworn enemy Adams. It is another feature of inter-case: North and South, was not averse to “steal” each other’s ideas if they were to taste.
The Cup of Hemlock
“As if the person swallowed a dose of arsenic, destructive to his body. Mexico will poison us”
1825 in Texas (then part of Mexico) was a law that openly pandered to the migrants from the United States. The land they sold for mere pennies, allowing you to pay in installments, additionally, the settlers were exempt from taxes for ten years. The law it was local, but well-paid lobbyists from the neighboring country, and what it may lead, in Mexico city realized only in 1830, after which any immigration from the States in the border States of Mexico were prohibited. But by the time the flow of migrants could not be stopped, and by the mid 30-ies in Texas, covering an area the size of two Spain, home to 30 million Americans and only about 7.5 thousand of the Mexicans, of which not all were loyal to the regime of Santa Anna. In California, the trends were the same, but the superiority of the “newcomers” of Americans over the “come in large numbers just before” Mexicans have not been as noticeable.
In 1835 in Texas broke out a separatist insurgency that Santa Anna out of habit tried to drown in blood. At first he seems to be out, and in the Texas consciousness still occupies an important place in the battle of the Alamo (some of the same reasons Russian remember about the defense of the Brest fortress), but in 1836, the year “the Napoleon of the West” received a harsh counterattack from Sam Houston former Governor of Tennessee, and at the time of the Texas revolutionary and commander in chief of the revolutionary army. USA had his “revolutionaries” are active, but informal support, – and then volunteers from all over the South, and weapons bought with the money of prominent planters, and sympathy in the Newspapers. On direct military support for Jackson to go could not – interfere with Adams and other “Northern” company, entrenched in Congress. Your new party project they called “Whigs”, alluding to the fact that Jackson was a tyrant, but it is worse than that of British monarchs (specify that the party of Jackson was called Democratic and still exists today, and the Whigs became the basis for the Republicans).
In the end, the captive Santa Anna was taken under protection in the USA, where he had an interesting dialogue with Jackson. To talk about what it was good – both liberals at heart, but with openly dictatorial in the case of a Mexican and a clear tendency to authoritarianism in the case of American. The ticket to his homeland, Santa Anna offered to pay the recognition of the independence of Texas, so as to Annex Texas Jackson yet could not, and all because of a damned Congress.
The North was their interest to resist the active expansion to the South. In 1820, they with the South adopted the Missouri compromise to the Louisiana Purchase Thomas Jefferson. Namely, the huge but sparsely populated area of French Louisiana was divided into “territories”, which became States only by raising the bar to 50 thousand inhabitants, and the Union involved only a pair – one free state and one slave. However, the South still formed an advantage in one state (and two votes in the Senate), but more populous North had a majority in the House of representatives. The annexation of Texas (in this case it seemed obvious that such a machine will have three or four state) were sent a Compromise to the dustbin of history: new earth is bound to attract many settlers, and within a generation, the South will begin to dominate, especially southerners of their plans in this sense, the especially and did not hide.
In addition, northerners feared that along with Texas and its unruly population of the United States will acquire and Mexican passion for independence and other coups. The Boston poet, politician and philosopher R. W. Emerson described the excessive absorption of Mexican land: “As if the person swallowed a dose of arsenic, destructive to his body. Mexico will poison us” (Russian “colleagues” Emerson could have worded the same thing as “you can take the girl out of Ukraine, but not Ukraine girls”, and Ukrainian broke to a speech about “cotton hearts”, “invaded” the East of the country). Southerners, who, it would seem that the Mexicans were supposed to have more claims, the question of “poison” did not care, but the active indignation of the North forced them to slow down.
Vote for war, famine and epidemics
“Unless the Lord wanted US and still remains a Union of 13 colonies, a narrow strip on the Atlantic coast?”
In 1844 in the USA, there was another presidential campaign, and several other important events. In particular, after much debate, the Union has included Texas, and one state, because the Tradeoff would otherwise have not been. The presidency, meanwhile, was eager, another native of Sunny Virginia James K. Polk, of course – Democrat and colleague of Jackson. Southerners, he seduces the annexation of new Mexico and California, Northmen – a solution to the old border dispute with Canada on the principle of “All Oregon – or-nothing, our terms or war.”
Whigs tried to resist. The issue with the Oregon North was decided, actively fusing back colonialism, that is, operated in much the same way that for some and South to Texas, but with the difference that in Oregon at the time any authorities was not the same Fremont, proclaimed a Republic in California, initially went there to clarify the boundaries and looking for a good land route). But expansion to the South of the Northern bogey. From the store even got old (and, incidentally, of the South during the war of 1812 year) slogan about the fact that Mr. Polk offers to vote for the war, famine and epidemics.
The Democrats have the ideology fared better. In 1845, the year Democrat John O’sullivan wrote an article “Annexation”, which welcomes the annexation of Texas and Oregon. The concept proposed in this article, creatively developed the principles of the Monroe Doctrine and was given the name Manifest Destiny (in Russian translation – “manifest Destiny”). It makes sense that America is the destiny and divine Providence destined to stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Unless the Lord wanted US and still remains a Union of 13 colonies, a narrow strip on the Atlantic coast? On the contrary, he wanted the Empire of Freedom has spread throughout the New world. This ideologeme, founded 170 years ago, has survived to the present day, it triggers the US desire to spread democracy American style everywhere where they can reach.
So the Americans got a noble reason for war. I just had to find an excuse. In April 1846 the first place border skirmish in Texas, provoked by the Americans themselves, whose troops went deep into Mexican territory. Killed 16 American soldiers and one officer. “American blood spilled on American soil,” said President Polk in Congress. Whigs sincerely tried to stop the war. Young, tall and gangling Senator from Illinois shook the card and demanded that Mr. Polk showed him a specific place, where they had a skirmish. Was illinoisa Abraham Lincoln, but to do he didn’t – America entered the war, won the war a resounding triumph and a stranger from Mexico almost half of its territories.
Partly Mr. Polk fulfilled the promise of Oregon, deciding old border dispute with Canada and set the border at the 49th parallel. No other President either before or after the Regiment was attached to the Union of such a vast territory. Circle is complete – the United States now stretched from ocean to ocean, and continental outlines (excluding Alaska) since then almost has not changed, although the success of Fremont in California has inspired a number of followers, who tried to pull the same stunt in Central America and Cuba. Liberty island was supposed to be the main diamond in the crown of the southern States. No luck: the Spaniards have made it clear that the more likely you will see the island flooded than Americans. Perhaps, over time, the United States still would be able to seize and Cuba, and other territories in Latin America, but did not have time – the beginning of the Civil war.
For fulfilled prophecy, and an easy victory over the frankly retarded by Mexico to the United States had to pay an exorbitant price. South from victory over the proud Santa Anna gained much more of the North, and the delicate balance between the two sections is gone. Did the war between North and South is inevitable, and the Americans lost that war more soldiers than any other with his participation, at the same time throwing US in the development of thirty years ago. So it was done, Fate, but by luck in the end put up monstrous.Related posts: