Exactly 150 years ago in the United States ended with the Civil war, formally closed the issue of the disintegration of the country into the progressive North and conservative South. However, many States still have a lot of activists, movements, full of parties and even governors, firmly defending the right of their homeland, independence from the Motherland is great. What motivates the American separatists?
13 April 1865 ended the battle at Palmito ranch, the last battle of the Civil war in the United States. Concluded, interestingly, with the victory of the southerners, but four days before that, on the evening of 9 April 1865, General Ulysses Simpson Grant accepted the surrender of General Robert E. Lee. The war between the North and South, which lasted four years and went down in history as the bloodiest for the U.S. the conflict ended.
“I’d rather be the subjects of the Russian autocrat, than the citizen of the Confederation”
Whether the surrender was signed in the small town of Appomattox in the state of Virginia in the house of a merchant-grocer and retired military of Wilmer McLean. Before the civil war, McLean lived in another part of Virginia, in the town of Manasse, in whose vicinity in July, 61-year turned around the first major battle of the war. Southerners used the McLean house as his headquarters, and thus turned it into a legitimate and even a priority target for enemy artillery. A year later, in August of ‘ 62, when unfolded, the second battle of Mannassa and southern generals again asked under the roof to the dealer, he realized that it was time to relocate, and moved to Appomattox. Unfortunately, soon there rushed and Severopeschanskaya Lee army, retreating before the forces of Grant. So Maclean had the third time to accommodate the highest generals of the South. After the war the widely known phrase McLean: “the War began in my yard and ended in my living room”.
Since then, it has been exactly 150 years. The conflict is investigated along and across, a number of scientific and artistic literature, as well as the timing of the movies about that war, incalculable. But, losing the war, southerners just won memory. The most famous American tank of the Second world is called the M3 “Lee” in memory of the rebellious General (however, its export version for the British troops is called the M3 “Grant”). In downtown Richmond the capital of Virginia is located Avenue of Confederates with sculptures of all the major figures of the South from the first and only President of the CSA Jefferson Davis, and to the prominent oceanographer and naval officer Matthew Maury. Memorials to confederates are in other cities of the South, not far from them you can always buy a full set of appropriate Souvenirs from fridge magnets to flags of the CSA.
Still tense debate about whether the southern States right to secede – secede from US and form their own state. The attitude towards this issue was very controversial in the years of the war itself. The Democrats of the North, criticizing the “civil war Republicans”, it is often suggested that it is not the southerners to leave the Union, and New England, which got moralizing and the desire to climb to its Charter in other States – even though North, though South. On the other hand, one of the senators, the southerners during the debate on withdrawal from the Union of evil threw their radical countrymen: “I’d rather be the subjects of the Russian autocrat, than the citizen of the Confederation”
In fact, the Civil war was the culmination of those internal conflicts that have smoldered since the days of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. Where the end of the Federal government and begin the powers of the States? Does the Federal center the right to “push” its decision in the rebellious regions? As shown, has a right by any means – until the art attacks on the rebel cities. However, showing a practical solution to this dilemma, the war was not abolished. History, say, of James Meredith, the first black student at Mississippi state University, which a hundred years later after the Civil war, the University enrolled only by a decision of the Supreme court, and the classes were taken under protection of Federal marshals, she is also, in essence, about it, and then about the rights of blacks. “Maybe blacks and it is not good to offend, but we got to come to this idea themselves, without coercion from the Federal government, which obviously mean to exceed their powers and thus violates the ideals that defended Washington and Jefferson themselves, by the way, the southerners and planters,” like so say the apologists of the South.
The apogee of the independence of the States is, of course, the right to secession. This is a really fundamental question – did Lincoln have the right to withhold the same Texas, given that Texans, when they are fifteen years before the Civil war voted for the accession to the Union, no one warned that the US referendums on secession from one state and joining another is not permitted. In the end, the States themselves were born as a result of successful separatism. So the founding fathers the right to secession was clearly recognized, as made explicit in the Declaration of Independence.
In the modern United States have enough people who answer this question – Yes, the state has the right to secede from the country. And often it is not some marginal figures (although enough), but quite respectable politicians and public figures. For example, a supporter of the right to secession is the former Governor of Texas (2000-2015) and the Republican party presidential primaries 2012 Rick Perry.
Texas boasts its own revolution and war for independence different from the U.S. as a whole. As a sovereign state, the Republic of Texas lasted nine years (1836-1845) and was recognized by several European powers. The state capital is named after the first President of independent Texas – Sam Houston, commander of the army during the secession from Mexico.
Naturally, such a historical backing fuels separatist sentiment in the state. “Texas is a huge area, it is a separate country with its unique culture and way of life. We want to have your passport. We have a completely different vision of the world and views on politics. We absolutely do not agree with the policy of the US Federal government. We have no hatred of the United States. But the main reason for the existence of our organization is that we don’t have States, we have Texas, said in an interview with the newspaper LOOK the head of the headquarters of the “Texas Nationalist movement” Nathan Smith.
Almost twenty years ago government hard enough defeated movement “Republic of Texas”, whose members believed that the state was illegally annexed in 1845 and since then remains under occupation. At the end of April 1997, the police arrested “the chief of security of the Republic” by Robert Chadta for illegal possession of weapons. Then the separatists took two hostages and demanded the release of a comrade. The authorities made concessions and traded Chadta for the hostages, but then naturally brought against six leaders of criminal charges for organizing a criminal group, and kidnapping. It all ended a week-long siege of the base of the separatists in the town of Fort Davis and the arrest of key members of the movement headed by “the Ambassador of Texas in the United States,” Richard McLaren, a native of Missouri).
From a freedom-loving Texas are trying to keep up and several States. Their Governor is a separatist can boast, for example, the inhabitants of the former territories of the Russian Empire. The independence party of Alaska was founded in 1984 and currently has over 13,000 members. In 1990, Walter Hickel put forward by this small party, won the gubernatorial elections. And earlier, Hickel already was Governor of Alaska from Republican party (1966-1969), and then worked as the Minister of internal Affairs in the government of Richard Nixon. With native Republicans, Hickel quarreled after the start of the Vietnam war, the contradiction was aggravated by the shooting of students at the University of Kent in may troops of the national guard. Four members of the anti-war demonstration were killed (two of them just happened to be passing), nine were wounded. Hickel struck Nixon with another portion of anti-war critics and soon had to resign.
A pupil of Hickes can be called is well known for its anti-Russian rhetoric of Sarah Palin. The husband of Palin, by the way, was listed among the registered members of the independence Party of Alaska, and Hickel supported her for Governor in 2006, however, three years later repented for this support, because Palin has become, in his opinion, an absolute evil.
Generally there is a certain joke of history that all the modern American separatists from the two major parties prefer the Republican. The first President from this party was, as you know, Abraham Lincoln, who, in fact, did not allow the South to escape. And even though a half century ago, “a Republican” in the South meant no party affiliation, and was an insult that could follow the challenge to a duel, the last fifty years, the so-called solid South voted predominantly for the Republican party.
The separatists were missing still. And from two sides. First, it is the supporters of various neoconfederate movements of the “League of the South”. Politically they join the Republicans and dixiecrats – the part of the Democrats of the South who after President Kennedy launched the “blatantly violating the rights and freedoms of southerners”, and Nixon in time framed vest, fled to the Republicans, and remained there a cactus in the home party.
Supporters of the CSA everything is clear, they seek independence, God himself commanded. However, the emancipation of blacks led to the emergence of southern political forces, which are also in favour of the independence of the southern States, but I believe that the white man does not need them. The most famous of these groups became the “Black Panthers”, which was closely related to the darling of the Soviet people Angela Davis. One of their goals was the establishment of the Republic of New Africa on the territory of the Southern United States. After the defeat of the “Panthers” in the 60-70s and declaring them a terrorist group they are pinned the tail, but followers of their ideals among the black population of the South almost more than followers of the ideals of CSA among white southerners.
Your separatists have almost every decent state from California to new York. Each of these groups, of course, trying to provide any historical Foundation for their independence. Someone offers to create an independent state of Cascadia, which includes the States of the North-West coast of the US and British Columbia (Canada). There are supporters of the unification of the South-Western US (CA area) and Northern Mexico. Candidates from movement “the Second Republic of Vermont” (which, as you might guess, stands for the independence of Vermont) is steadily gaining its 5-8% in the elections and have a certain number of representatives in local assemblies. The idea of independence in new York, incidentally, is also not scratch based. Fernando wood – mayor of the city in the beginning of the Civil war actively promoted the idea that if secession does take place, then new York should declare itself a free city and trade with both sections. Such is the secret of Odessa.
Still, currently no serious separatist threats in the United States does not exist. Most of the supporters of such movements are not so much in favor of the immediate secession of the native States, as for their right to have an aluminum fork that is, for the possibility of a peaceful divorce. And it is hard to imagine today that some of the States will secede from the country.
However, at a time when the USA triumphantly won the war with Mexico, and Texas and California voluntarily joined the Union, few could imagine that the victory will result in the growth of contradictions between the two sections, secession and civil war.Related posts: