Real puzzle for linguists and historians of Russian literature tossed by the archaeologists. During excavations in Veliky Novgorod they found birch bark with a hitherto unknown word. For decoding the ancient text come from linguists. Their investigation revealed that the mysterious ancient word was accusatory, abusive. The details we learned from the experts.
Photo courtesy of the Novgorod Museum-reserve
As we have told in a press-service of the Novgorod Museum-reserve, an interesting discovery was made in the Trinity excavation. It is in the so-called Lyudin end in medieval Novgorod. There are already many years of the Novgorod archaeological expedition.
As told to archaeologists, birch bark, they managed to dig up on June 22. The finding was assigned a reference number 1082. Historians have dated the artifact to the first half of the 14th century. When the letter is unfolded, it turned out that its content is limited to just one line: “WOW ARTEMIA UO OSAKA THREE BEREGOVSKI”.
The text is preserved almost perfectly. On birch fold visible incised letters. But despite this, scientists had to rack the brains to understand the meaning of written in a medieval document.
The only thing that was clear from the record is evidence of a debt or dues. “Berkovski” or “berkovets” – common in that era, the measure of weight of honey or grain. She was equal to 10 poods (16.38 kg). We are talking about thirty poods of a product.
But who or what is “Pasak”, scientists didn’t know. According to archaeologists, none of the previously found birch bark letters, even similar in spelling are not met. Scientists joke: on hearing the mysterious word like “pacak” from the movie George Danelia “kin-DZA-DZA”. So clearly something negative.
To decipher the meaning of unknown words able philologist, academician Andrei Zaliznyak. As told by Museum staff, researchers examined the features of the Pskov and Tver dialect. It turned out that “Pasak” – none other than a fraudster or a thief.
Linguists claim that the slang variations on the theme of thieves, rogues and crooks in the old days was a lot. Here are some of them (we chose the most harmonious and decent): “abduwali”, “obled”, “hmaster”. But for those who had perpetrated the robbery with blood and massacres, there was a stronger word: “Shagalov”. According to scientists, the so-called thugs and other “dashing people” mainly in the Perm and Vyatka province.
But in different times called those who mind did not come out: “alloting”, “ostalpen”, “rastopka” (the Berk), “Fofana” (sucker).
As noted by the doctor of Philology, head of Department of the Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences Anatoly Baranov, understand the value of the lost ancient words in several ways. The first is the context that dictates the meaning. The second method – the search to find the pronunciation of words in the dialects of neighbouring areas or villages.
– The swearing and slang is very quickly fading from the lexicon, says of sheep – For them, because there are no rules and formal vocabularies. This applies not only to ancient words. In the 18-19 centuries the word “pockect”. The so-called small-time crooks who tossed the victim of any object quietly in his pocket, and then take in poor circulation and “divorce” on money. Now that word has completely disappeared from use. Even the classics of the ‘ 70s- “Gherla” and “shoes” – hardly anyone of today’s youth understand.Related posts: