In the late nineteenth century, when hygiene became a science, German scientists have established for a normal life person should account for 25 cubic meters of air.
In 1919, when the Bolsheviks were still in the hell of Civil war began to establish rules of normal life, they took that figure, divided by the ceiling height of three meters and got a rate of 8,25 sq. m per person. It was settled in communal — not thinking, however, that furniture and other things have a volume and displace part of the necessary air.
“Hruschob” the height of the rooms was lowered to 2.5, and even up to 2.2 meters and increased health at least up to 12 sq. m.
And in 1970-e years with the growing prosperity and quality of life it was found that due to contamination, the person should not 25, and at least 50 cubic meters of air. And when the ceiling is 3 meters should be at least 17 square meters of housing, and the ceiling is 2.5 meters — 20!
Modern UN standards and does require 30 sq. m (residential, not the total area!) per person.
In Russia the supply of housing has increased since 2000 with more than 19 to almost 24 square meters (!) square. But it also includes the empty investment apartments, and mansions with hundreds of “squares” on the person. The majority of Russians live in unacceptable from the sanitary point of view, conditions.
In hostels, where the lives of 2.6 million people (and not just evicted a debtor on the mortgage or utilities, but, for example, employees of a number of law enforcement agencies), about 6 sq m per person. Worse than Civil war: it is the level of accommodation for the poor in the nineteenth century in the UK!
Under Soviet rule, the family had to move to larger apartments, if a man had at least 12 sq. m. Now the norm in some regions reduced to 9 sq m — and the resettlement of even the sanitary minimum no question.
Yes, the Soviet people stood in line for an apartment for many years, but the line was moving, and housing was free (for the wealthy were cooperatives, and sometimes even the loan at negligible rates).
According to estimates, the supply of housing is above average in only 41% of Russians. 10% per person 10-12 sq m, and even 10% less than 10 square metres, and the state owes nothing to nobody, saying, “there’s no money but you keep”!
However, it also recognizes that once the constitutional right to housing certain categories of citizens. Soldiers, “Chernobyl”, “Afghans” at the beginning of last year, stood in line for housing a little less than 300 thousand. and 376 thousand young families needing improvement of housing conditions. Progress is being made, but they are not sufficient.
With the purchase of housing by young families are subsidized up to 40% of their prices, but that is often understated (last year in St. Petersburg, estimated to be twice).
In 2004, the price of the apartment is 54 sq m was salary workers, husband and wife for 4 years (with two dependents, it is less than the sanitary norm), and after 10 years, despite still constituting the pride of the leader of “United Russia” Medvedev project “Affordable housing”, it only decreased to 3.9 years.
Of the UN, housing is available, if its purchase it is necessary to accumulate up to 3 years, and completely unavailable if you need to save more than 5 years. In Russia, the most optimistic regional minimum is as much as 7 years.
But in addition to the housing area there is a problem of its quality.
Approximately 20% of the population of regions have more than 18 sq. m total (not residential!) area per person. But these “surplus” mostly old poor house. It is estimated that only a quarter of the inhabitants of the regions has the housing of Federal regulations (separate with all facilities, not less than 18 sq. m per person).
Despite the efforts of the state, at the beginning of 2013 in the regions required replacement of 42.5% water, 35.9% of sewage, 26.6% of heating (heat loss increases from 7.2% in 2000 to 10%). Had no water to 31 million people., hot water, and 49 million, sanitation — the 37 million Central heating — 24 million people.
The share of dilapidated and emergency housing during the Soviet era was 1.3% (end of 1990), and the emergency was only 3.3 million sq m against 28.9 million old.
By the end of 2000, the share of dilapidated and emergency housing increased to 2.4% and in 2005 reached a high of 3.2 per cent. The decline began only in 2009, by the end of 2013 to 2.8%. However, if the area of dilapidated housing has increased in the post-Soviet period by 2.4 times (to 70.1 million square meters), the alarm, which live in dangerous, — as much as 7.2%, to 23.8 million sq. m.
But these conventional data. Rosstat specifies: “In the absence of a normative legal act establishing the procedure of state accounting of housing Fund… information for the year 2013 generated… full range of owners of housing”.
For subsequent years, open no official information (they promise to only get in the middle of this year). Collection of cadastral assessment are all over the housing, but to integrate the concerns of people (and for greater reliability of the same inventory, by the way) all state in no way could give birth to a legal act.
About half of the houses need major repairs. President Putin noted that in Russia in the year repaired about 50 million square meters of housing, which faces a communal disaster.
Mandatory payments for capital repairs farmed out to the regions, and even in such similar cities as Moscow and Saint Petersburg, they differ five times.
Fundraising reminds brazen robbery: President Putin said that in 2015 for the repair we took 97 billion rubles., and signed contracts (with all their “imperfections”) only 25 billion Almost three quarters of the money, 72 bn, we have just.
While the state does not learn to use our money to take them it has no right.
Moreover, before collecting funds for the overhaul of the state has a duty to bring housing up to standard, if the privatization was passed in an improper manner.
And the flywheel housing between the stops. In the first quarter of 2015, the commissioning of housing in operation exceeded last year’s level by 33.5%, and even in the second quarter of the excess (2,0%) still remained. But in the third quarter, a decline of 6.2% in the fourth quarter, 7.5% in January–April of this year of 14.3%.
Russia is enveloped in a severe housing crisis, comparable to the late Stalin. Although the comparison is flawed: the country is steadily rising from the ruins of a monstrous war, and she is still crushed by the liberal socio-economic policies “dashing 90-x”.
Homelessness deprives the masses of the opportunity to create a family.
However, construction is only mitigated the housing crisis due to the monopolistically high price of housing. As a result, new neighborhoods are mostly bought for investment purposes or have improved the lives of the middle class, which could pull the extortionate expensive mortgage. Joke about the fact that the replacement of the offender the death penalty a mortgage for 25 years is perceived as a senseless atrocity, all less funny.
The majority of Russians has no chance to improve living conditions regardless of the severity of their problems.
Cheaper housing because of the crisis makes the situation only had large savings: for the rest of the price reduction kompensiruet falling income, rising uncertainty, rising costs of credit and everyday life.
Therefore, the decline in construction has little effect on the severity of the crisis: housing is too expensive and bought in the past largely for investment. Its not sold as the owners have a reserve of strength and hope for higher prices, to rent it troublesome and due to the fall in prices is not very profitable, and often keep it empty.
This is a terrible paradox: the mass of vacant housing reinforces his lack!
The simplest way out — forced purchase of its starting, for example, from the third apartment, government at cost (without overstating the corruption, bureaucracy and just speculation) with some regulatory profit and the transfer of social rent.
At least a rude yield found in France: a tax on vacant housing in the cities with population over 50 thousand persons the Apartment there is left empty only. In the second year it is taxed at 12.5% and the third year — 25% of imputed rental income. If the owner of the firm, the stakes are higher.
So the owner of vacant housing of economically forced to surrender its lease, which increases the supply, reduces the cost of the rental and makes it more accessible.
The neglect of this measure, the continuation of ignoring the growing housing crisis will continue with the General policy of the government, the leader of “United Russia” Medvedev to bring the people to despair and every day will increase the likelihood of the realization of a simple, violent solutions to housing problems.Related posts: