These words known to all, but everyone puts in their own sense. I think most people would like to see the homeland begins with the most important human values — friendship, love, respect for people. To be able to live in prosperity and to realize itself in favorite work.
These simple and natural desire has led to the fact that in the late 1980-ies, the people revolted against the Communist party’s monopoly on power. People are tired of the endless prohibitions of the icing of life. They wanted simple human pleasures, including eat better, wear better clothes, travel around the world. If the Soviet system is so fair and humane as we have been indoctrinated from childhood, that is why we must constantly sacrifice their natural desires? If the countries that are declared enemies of the Soviet Union, living conditions much better than us, maybe it’s time to abandon the Soviet ideology and its claim to exclusivity?
To such conclusion came the significant part of the population, including representatives of the “elite” of the Communist party. And in search of a way Gorbachev went on the democratization of the regime in 1989, has held democratic elections of people’s deputies of the USSR, and in 1990 the RSFSR. At the first election the Democrats took no more than a fourth of the seats, but achieved much — in particular the abolition of the 6th article of the USSR Constitution, asserting the primacy of the CPSU. And on the second Democrats have already gained the majority.
It is the people’s deputies of the RSFSR on 12 June 1990, 26 years ago, adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty of the RSFSR. In honor of this event on 12 June and was established as a national holiday — Russia Day, which we recently celebrated.
Well, that is how said? As shown by public opinion polls, many do not understand what this holiday and what kind of Declaration is being made, was given the day off — and well.
Explain. With the help of the Declaration on state sovereignty of the RSFSR the Russian people, through their representatives, first elected democratically, has announced the launch of a new history of Russia. If this country was an Empire — first Russian, then Soviet, then the Declaration announced the intention to create a democratic state with separation of powers. The people denounced their will to power and actually control the power through elections, that the judiciary was independent from the Executive, to have freedom of speech, freedom of the media. Only under these conditions can be a real public control over state power. And most importantly, that the Declaration of state sovereignty of the RSFSR was not just a set of regulations like the Constitution of the USSR, in which many things are written correctly. All the items of the new instrument was then implemented via dozens of adopted laws, which began to really work in the early 90-ies.
It is important to emphasize that the Declaration did not mean the withdrawal of the RSFSR from the USSR, as sometimes it is interpreted. The preamble declared its determination to create a democratic constitutional state within the renewed USSR.” That is, the Soviet Union offered to keep.
On this day, June 12, we have another historic event — the election of the first President of Russia, which took place in 1991.
If the adoption of the Declaration can be considered as a statement of intent to create a democratic state and transfer control to the people, the elections of 1991, the implementation of these intentions. It was a real alternative elections: Democrats participated in Boris Yeltsin from the Communist Nikolai Ryzhkov, there were other candidates. If we consider that the power in the RSFSR was then owned by the Congress of people’s deputies, which was dominated by Democrats, it is obvious that they had a temptation to influence the ballot to ensure the victory of their candidate. But the elections were conducted fairly, and the victory of Yeltsin became unconditional.
My words may seem subjective, because I supported Yeltsin, were part of the leadership of the movement “Democratic Russia”, based on which Yeltsin was President. But everyone can verify the validity of my assessment, having become acquainted with the memoirs of Nikolai Ryzhkov, who with a huge gap lost to Yeltsin: 17% vs 57%. His recent article in “MK” called “the Mystery of Yeltsin’s victory”, but it just becomes clear that no secrets there. Ryzhkov says that the election was completely honest and he understood that he would lose the popular support of Yeltsin was very large.
Yeltsin’s popularity was due not only to his personal charisma, but also to support “Democratic Russia”. Number “Demrussia” much lost of the Communist party, especially considering that starting from a certain level of posts in the party was part of every first citizen of the country. Of course, to go to the polls against such a monster was risky. But Demrossiya” did not go on to at least something to break the cleanness of the procedure. While the elections were carried out without the scientists, without zombies on TV and almost without funding.
I remember how, being a Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, I arrived at the airport “Domodedovo”, on the airfield, and handed in the cockpit of a pack of leaflets in support of Yeltsin. On behalf of the free trade Union of flight personnel pilots took leaflets to Kamchatka and other remote areas of the country. That’s all the technology.
The events of 1990-1991 showed that our country is not of a helpless population, unable to determine their own destiny. Despite decades of treatment and intimidation by a totalitarian regime, Russians dared to choose freedom and democracy. It was quite a conscious choice.
Therefore, the past 12 of June — a real feast, and I’m sure over time it will go down in history of Russia, can be by combining both events in 1990 and 1991. This will be the Day a democratic Russia, marking the first case of the establishment of democratic governance in the millennial history of Russia.
The victory of democracy almost two months later, in August 1991, tried to deprive the people of geochemisty. But nothing happened because the head of Russia was already a popularly elected President. Would not have been Yeltsin selected in June, people would not try to stop the revival of the Soviet Empire in August. This year we celebrate 25 years of a victory over putsch, and for me, these three dates merge.
Now Russian public opinion is actually divided into two camps: those who believe that democracy does not need Russia, and those who considers that is necessary, but impossible. The first are convinced that Russia should remain an Empire, the only way she can save herself. The second, though would want to live in a democratic country, but are, in this sense, pessimistic: supposedly Russia is not adapted to democracy and then to build. Therefore, the first actively supported the modern Imperial course of development, and the second or have fallen into apathy, or going to leave.
I am convinced that democracy in Russia is needed, and it is possible.
As you know, any country is moving in one direction or another under the influence of the majority, which is usually inert, but a small percentage of consolidated, convinced and active people. So was and in 90-e years: proponents of democracy drew away the population and a huge energy was directed at the victory of Yeltsin.
And now I want to supporters of the first position — “democracy is not needed, the Empire” is to give some revealing figures. The US deliberately leave behind the scenes as a television, they announced the “main enemy”. Let’s Take Europe. In recent years, the gap between rich and poor (the average income of the richest 10% to the average income of the poorest 10% in Russia reaches the indicator 30, and in Europe the figure 4-7. Compare the costs of military articles, education and health. We now have a military spending goes from 4 to 9% of GDP, while in Europe less than 2%. But health care in Europe to spend 9-12% of GDP and we have about 3%. Of course, this ratio is consistent with “Imperial”, but consider whether you, the readers of my column need missiles and tanks instead of treatment and education?
I hope that a significant portion of the population time to understand that real democracy is the only way to save the country, and to achieve a decent life for every person. Once, quite recently, in Russia it was.
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