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Sunday, December 11, 2016

Where and how in Russia they teach operators of military drones


The development of unmanned aviation in Russia is on the rise. After analyzing the experience of NATO countries and introducing their know-how, the defense Ministry managed to ensure that the experience and tactics of using drones now began to learn from us. In Russia, training of specialists and the study of the theory and practice of the use of drones has been the State center of unmanned aviation of the defense Ministry. Correspondent “MK” talked with students and teachers located near Kolomna centre.


photo: Alexander Stepanov

To improve the application of unmanned aircraft, the defense Ministry paid attention. We can state the fact that this region made a significant leap. If in 2011 in the Armed forces was 180 unmanned systems, at the end of 2015, they became almost 10 times more. In addition, the experience of combat missions in Syria has shown that they are indispensable during hostilities. Today, the company unmanned aircraft established in each military district, and by the end of this year formed a similar unit in the Northern fleet. State center of unmanned aviation is prepared of drone operators, study of promising models of equipment and even come up with a theory of the use of drones.

Rigorous selection

Now, with the increase of tasks that perform drones, is a very acute issue of training competent operators who know their machines, that is, from “a” to “z”. It is designed to carry out center. In addition, it performs the task of aerial reconnaissance and liquidation of consequences of emergencies, conducting military trials of complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles prior to their adoption, as well as conducting research. Last year, the center has trained more than 1,100 specialists on the application of complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles. In the nearest future it is planned the equipment of the center for automated learning system and the establishment of branches of military districts. Soon, in addition to servicemen of the defense Ministry sit at their desks, experts from other departments of the Ministry of internal Affairs, FSB, Ministry of emergency situations.

Learn in Kolomna the only contractors having education not below an average special. To get directions to the center, the soldier first goes through a series of qualification tests in my part. At the beginning of training the cadets undergo theoretical training, pass tests, receive skills of management of the UAV in the gym and after obtaining the necessary tolerances are already starting to practice.

As told to “MK” head of the center Valery Frolov, exams not all: about 10-15 percent of cadets drop out in the first weeks of training.

Hard selection: one grade on the exams — and the right to sublease gone, the soldier goes to the part where she come from.

Training depends on what type of drones are trained cadets. If it is a complex short-range and short-range, such as UAVs, “Garnet” from the first to the fourth modification, “Aileron”, “Zastava”, etc., the study lasts 2.5 months; for complexes of the middle of the action, the type of UAV “Outpost”, learn about four months.

After graduation, soldiers are sent to their units.


photo: Alexander Stepanov
Lieutenant of Marines Alexander Zhitenev says: in order to apply to study in the center, you need to pass a serious selection in parts.

The operators of the future

In front of the parade ground are the drones, which now caters to students. Here the range of UAV “Granat”. The smallest of them — “Granat-1”. He’s going for five minutes, hand-launched and can conduct reconnaissance at ranges up to 15 km from the Complex “Granat-2 — have more. It can be monitored at distances of over 20 km is Equipped as a photo-and a video camera. The range of “Grenade-3” — more than 40 kilometers, and complex “Granat-4” can operate at ranges of over 100 km, This machine can use the thermal imager.

A little further away are already “large” UAVs — for example, the complex “White-10”. This device operates at ranges up to 150 km is Designed for reconnaissance with photo and video recording. Equipped with an infrared camera and VHF direction finders. The height of its flight — up to 5 thousand meters. Can give corrections and transmit data in real time to the command post. Able to stay aloft for up to 10 hours.

In classrooms hard at work. Monitors sit near the students centre, and in the middle class — the instructor who monitors the performance of assigned tasks.

— When you reach a height of 100 — issue parachute — gives an introductory instructor. — At landing the wind 120.

— Received, ” says the cadet. — Ready for landing.

Lieutenant of Marines Alexander Zhitenev enrolled in the center for a long time. He tells that he was sent to study of the part which is located near lake Baikal. He graduated from the Ryazan automotive school and went on distribution in the Central military district, but after learning about the center, decided to change the qualification and to become the operator of the UAV. Now he masters the “Orlan-10”.

— In the armed forces the operators of drones are very popular, — explains his choice of officer. — I decided to retrain. Actually I have all the relatives — military pilots, I tried to enroll in aviation school, but was not on the health. Now I can say, get a second chance to get into aviation.

Alexander said that, although the studies were not easy, but so far no comments.

— After graduation, go back in part, to the Baikal, — shares plans officer. — The majority of my colleagues want to understand what the drone to know more about them. This is also prompted to go to the drone operators. Now a whole generation of new machines appears — consider me one of the first to master this profession…

The Zhitenev says: in order to apply to study in the center, you need to pass a serious selection in parts. Just for “show”, here to learn not sent. In addition, the center also training is in three stages. First check knowledge of computers aptitude and then begins learning the basics of the profession.

— Land units use light drones, so I’m studying here, their performance characteristics, — says Alexander. — In the future I want to master a whole range of unmanned aircraft to explore including heavy drones. This is a very interesting and promising.

In classes, students study the topography, tactical and special training, and communication; in addition, the UAV operator must be a confident computer user. Great attention is paid to the technical component of a drone. Studied the operation of all types of engines — gasoline and electric.

— Ideally, the drone operator should know his machine, that is, to death, the officer said. — He should be able to resolve small issues in it. In principle, nothing complicated here.

To catch up

Landfills fulfilled in practice what was zasobiralis in the classroom. The students under supervision of instructors have independently launched drones into the sky and perform academic tasks. And the bad weather for practical training does not affect. The drones rise and snow, in the rain.

Indeed, now there is no people wanting to go to school downtown. Here is the most modern training facilities and experienced mentors. To exchange experiences in coming to the center even from flight schools. In addition to direct training of cadets center specialists are developing software and the statutory instruments on application of complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles and the use of airspace of the UAV. Moreover, the Russian tactic is to use the UAV is now recognized by the best in the world. Here the great merit of the leadership of the center, which managed almost from scratch to create a unique object, able to prepare world-class specialists.

Of course, the backlog of Russia on creation of combat drones yet exist. If in the Soviet Union, this area is considered a priority and we were one of the leaders, in 90-e years, the industry fell into the pit, which lasted about 20 years. Now the industry is actively repairing the omission.

Appeared promising a heavy UAV capable of carrying impact weapons, developed helicopter-type drones. They are not inferior to the best samples of foreign States on the range and flight duration, of the effectiveness of aerial reconnaissance, the performance of special tasks. All these machines will necessarily be tested in the center.

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