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Friday, December 9, 2016

China decided in 33 years to catch up with the US in the scientific field


To turn China into a “scientific superpower” demanded the Chairman XI Jinping speaking in Beijing before academics. As of deadline, he called the century of the proclamation of the Republic. Experts say that one country caught up with the other on scientific lines, it will be possible to say when the number of Chinese innovative products in the markets compared with the us.

Chinese President XI Jinping set the goal to turn China into a leading power in science and technology 2049. He stated this on Tuesday at the biannual conference of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of engineering in Beijing.

“In Russia, too, lowered orders, but there are scientific publications require people who receive on 20 thousand roubles! This is ridiculous”

“China should be one of the most innovative countries by 2020 and to take a leading position in the field of innovation in 2030 to achieve the goal of becoming a power, a world leader in the field of science and technology on the centenary of the founding of the PRC,” – said XI Jinping. As reported TASS, participated in its opening Premier of China Li Keqiang pledged to experts in the field of science and technology “more freedom and financial support”. Since 2010, China’s investment in research and development grew more than in two times, it was noted at the conference.

“The chances are small”

A Chinese businessman who deals in China, the hi-tech sector, said the newspaper VIEW that considers named Chairman of the si target to be achievable.
“The chances of China to achieve this goal at least a little, but still there. The fact that the level of higher education in China, as you know, is quite high. The number and quality of scientists the country is not inferior to any of the world’s scientific and technical powers, – said the Chinese businessman. – In China, still well-developed economy, which will provide scientists they need financial support. So the potential is there”. However, there are difficulties and recognized businessman. “The most difficult thing – the adaptation of scientific achievements to the real economy. Prevents the competition from other powers,” he complained.

To understand that set by the Chairman of the si task is performed, with one parameter, said senior researcher of Institute of Far East of RAS, expert of the Center for analysis of strategies and technologies Vasily Kashin.

“We have to see so many innovative Chinese products Chinese development and the Chinese brands that their number will be equal with us. In the world famous Chinese high-tech brands like Lenovo, Huawei. But how many of them on such a gigantic country?” – rhetorically asks Kashin. “I think China will definitely be able to come to the forefront in terms of some set of areas that he considers crucial: atomic energy, space, electronics, aircraft”, – the expert believes.

The contradictions in China’s developmentthere was “the science of Chinese science”

“Can China become an innovation superpower is a topic of endless scientific disputes which are conducted primarily in the United States. It created the whole scientific school, a whole “industry track,” Cashin said the newspaper VIEW.

“A single point of view there. Sound a skeptical assessment: there remain a number of weaknesses in China, associated with a not very good environment for investment, insufficient protection of property rights, including intellectual unpreparedness of the educational system to produce necessary quantities of people are capable of original innovation,” ” said the expert. “At the same time and noted the tremendous progress in several areas, it is recognized that local sectors China has moved to the forefront: for example, supercomputers, biotechnology and so on,” said Kashin.

“Industry track” is needed due to the fact that to understand Chinese statistics are not so simple, he explained. “For example, China is ahead of the rest by the number of patents and scientific publications, and the reason is that all companies, both public and even private, if you want some benefits, lower the order – how many patents and scientific publications in the year they are required to issue”, – said Cashin. In his opinion, to inflate the statistics, but scientific publication on the same topic does not always mean real opportunities to take and develop a nuclear reactor or a spaceship.

From China, no brain drain, no

“Yeah, they pull the orders, but they are making scientific publications in Chinese and in international, prestigious journals,” says a colleague of the main researcher of the same Institute for Far Eastern studies, member of the Council on foreign and defense policy Alexander LOMANOV. – In Russia, too, lowered orders, but there are scientific publications require people who receive on 20 thousand roubles! This is ridiculous. And in China, lower the distribution list of people who are on the same posts receive 120 thousand rubles. They have an incentive to make the publication, even if not perfect quality.”

Says LOMANOV, the number of innovative products is not the only indicator. “China’s tremendous achievements in the Union Western economic theories of free market economy and China’s specific characteristics. How these successes can be measured? Only in the way in the whole developing country. Important Humanities, success in which is also cannot be measured, but only felt – the quality of the scientific literature. This is a General indicator of the environment”, – said the expert sinologist newspaper VIEW.

“China has a huge talent pool! You can always find an expert on any – very narrow – issue. They know everything from the geography of southern Europe to the oil fields in the Arctic and Antarctica, from space physics to the latest theories of Economics. That is, in the framework of one nation created a full range of scientific competencies. With this strong solid support they have every reason to expect success. The base for it will be laid in the next 10 years – hopes of Romanov. – Then, after 30 years marked by the Chairman C goal could be achieved. Why not?”

“To catch up with the US is quite real”

By mid-century, China’s GDP will be at least one and a half times more American, confidently predicts the expert. “If we allocate the same share of income on science, like States, to catch up with the US is quite real,” he said. – Today, wages in Chinese universities and academies are very high. Unlike Russia, no leak no brains. There candidates actually compete for jobs in the scientific field, throughout the competitions, select the most able”.

The main threat to these plans, the expert sees in the slowdown of the Chinese economy. “While GDP is growing at six to seven percent, if the state spending on science in the same proportion, that is enough for success. If China suddenly falls to two to three percent or even stagnation, that is, of course, will affect the science” – fears of Romanov. However, he thinks that even at this unfavorable background, the authorities will have to give less in other areas, but R & d will get as much money as you need.

“The extensive growth of China ended. The worker who sews a shirt for $ 100 per month, the PRC will never happen again! This trait flows to neighboring countries. Another thing – Chinese engineer or scientist, which will be for three thousand dollars to perform the same job for which the American takes 10 thousand. And it will work on a comparable level. This niche remains promising for the next few decades. China will never be a state of cheap labor. Now his goal is to become government qualified personnel”, – concluded the expert.

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