The schism of the Russian Church on nikonian and believers, exactly 350 years. It is inferior to the split into red and white scale, but not cruelty. In both cases, the reconciliation of two parts of Russian society is not ended so far, which once again illustrates the obvious – such conflicts are not closer to the truth, and lead to the weakening of the country.
On this day in 1666 (may 12, old style), the Big Moscow Cathedral, sent Avvakum in the Northern exile for refusing to repent. There was a pop and sent Lazarus, who subsequently massacred the language. The penitent was deacon Fedor after some time returned to the old believers, was burnt. Habakkuk himself is finished as well, what every schoolboy knows. In General, at that time, the split has already taken place. And the dividing line of the old and new rites in a literal sense, took place on human lives.
“When the Prosecutor of the Republic of Crimea Natalia Poklonskaya went to the campaign “Immortal regiment” with an icon of canonised Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, fragile Patriotic unity again started to come apart at the seams”
Many define the date of a split into a dozen years earlier, after all, anathema to the old rite had been solemnly and officially pronounced in the first week of Great Lent, 1656. And even then there were dissenters. For example, Bishop Paul of Kolomna, who for their opposition, too, was exiled in the same year, apparently, killed. This once again illustrates that the claims of the two parts of the once United Church to one another grow from the blood, and therefore the history of the reunion of the old believers and nikonian was long and did not end until now. But more instructive than it looks, helping to deal with what is important, what is secondary, and where there should be love.
Old believers for a long time organized persecution. They burned, they burned themselves. According to some estimates, autos gave myself about 20 thousand people. The beginning of a long reconciliation was formed only in the late XVIII – early XIX century, when Emperor Paul initiated the “one faith” – acceptance of old believer communities in the bosom of the Russian Church, but with reservations, without the abolition of “oaths” (curse) of the Great Moscow Cathedral and preserving, to put it mildly, mistrust of the Synod to the ancient Orthodox communities and their hierarchies. Then there were the decree “On strengthening the foundations of tolerance” of Nicholas II from 1905, which concerns not only believers but also Christians of other confessions, and decisions of the local Council of 1917, smartasic attitude to the dissenters. The notorious “oath” with the old believers were eventually lifted only in 1929 – at the meeting of the Provisional Patriarchal Holy Synod, when the old rite was voted “ravnoapostolnym” Nikonian rite of the Church. This decision was confirmed by the local Council of 1971, and in 2000, Patriarch Alexy II said that “the old ranks and the ceremonies are the common treasure of the Church.”
Despite the fact that “co-religionists” in the Russian Church are now many (and their number continues to increase), an independent, not entering into canonical communion with the old believers of consent is in Russia and far beyond its borders – is only a few million people. The largest education – it is a Russian Orthodox old believer Church (aka Belokrinitskoy consent) and the old Orthodox Pomor Church. Numerous smaller groups by their number. Finally, there is a very very strange isolationist “bespopovtsi talk”, in which Christianity often is almost nothing left. Even the ceremonies there is not a nikonian and not old, and some very alternative. Part of old believers also joined with ROCOR, and the process is greatly accelerated after the year 2000, the hierarchy of the Church Abroad brought the official repentance for the persecution of old believers, which began under Patriarch Nikon and Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. And when seven years later the greater part of the ROCOR reunited with the Russian Orthodox Church, in the regiment “canonical old believers” arrived.
The essence of this bloody and centuries-old schism now seems very strange: all the questions were exactly in the rite, while in the dogmas of no climbing. The question of how to be baptized – three fingers (a symbolic designation of the Trinity) come in two (symbol of the human and divine natures of Christ), for the casual observer of little importance. And views on how many times to shout “Hallelujah” in the Liturgy (and other liturgical canons), in General change over time in any local Church and, if not affect the essence of the creeds, are taken more or less calmly.
But not in the case with the reforms of Nikon. It is clear that Nikon thought and as the Primate of the great Church, and as a statesman. He wanted the unification, uniformity and standard of worship to unite people by acting tough and sometimes ultimate. However, there is a version (it is described in particular in “the True history of the Romanov dynasty” by Nikolai Konyaev, head of the Orthodox society of writers of St.-Petersburg) that by the end of his life, himself in exile, Nikon realized the fallacy of this approach and constantly repented for the way it conducted its reform.
As for Habakkuk, he was, according to sources, an explosive man, principled and extremely stubborn at the same time very charismatic. Quite naturally, such crude coercion on the part of Nikon, he could not stand and easily acquired followers. There is a conflict between two strong personalities, including due to which changes in stav Church services were perceived by the parties to the conflict, as the decision of the First Ecumenical Council, when the Holy Fathers of the Church “fought for the letter against the Arians, by defining, or podobnoye consubstantial Son to the Father. The difference of only one letter (Greek), but the gap in theology and defining the properties of God. What is much more important than the number of fingers, of course even atheists.
She further history demonstrates the inadequacy of this estimation is anathema with the old practices are removed. However, the split is still not “Obrucheva” finally.
With the non-aligned believers are still under negotiation, some progress emerged in 2005 with the Pomeranian Church, but then everything died down again. In Russia the split, the split is a matter of quick and radical. But reconciliation then it may take several centuries.
A similar thrust is to uphold the truth at any cost – a sign not only of Russian Orthodoxy, and it is characteristic of Russian society as a whole. Illustrative example – the “white” and “red” patriots. And they like their Homeland. At least, in words – and words are ready all the forces to give the benefit of the Fatherland. But this does not prevent them sometimes vehemently despise and hate each other. When the Prosecutor of the Republic of Crimea Natalia Poklonskaya went to the campaign “Immortal regiment” with an icon of canonised Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II (and here it should be noted that with the icons of people came in the other cities), fragile Patriotic unity again started to come apart at the seams. At least in the media and on the Internet, where “white red cut, white cut red”, fortunately, only virtual. How much will such a “cabin” at the slightest provocation? If you look at native traditions in relation to the believers (several tens or even hundreds of years. Crushing on ideological issues, like the fragmentation of stylistic forms, leads only to permanent chaos and wanton growth of the list of insults and mutual claims, under the weight of which is to understand that “unity in Essentials, difference in the secondary, and love in everything”, is not obtained. The intransigence and categorization sometimes does not affect even the understanding that both the USSR and the Russian Empire is “artifacts of bygone eras”. And since the ideology of religious awe is transferred easily and naturally, disputes the “red” and “white” is especially similar to the purely religious.
In this conflict, often arising from a laudable desire to defend the truth (because the truth must not be desecrated), eventually triumph only those who, in essence, equally disgusting and the Soviet Union, and Russian Empire, and the Russian Federation. Those who are equally mangles and from old believers, and from nikonian. But lose all the rest, including Russia itself.Related posts: