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Sunday, October 23, 2016

The end of the myth: how were found the manuscript “the quiet don”

The publishing house “Algorithm” published a book observer of the “MK” of the writer of Lev Kolodny, “Who wrote “Quiet flows the don”. Chronicle of literary investigation.”

Lev Kolodny was lucky to find in Moscow manuscripts of the first two books of the novel and, as said Alexander Sholokhov, Director of the Museum-reserve of M. A. Sholokhov, “managed to contribute to the world community return of the manuscript “the quiet don”. The Department of literature and art “MK” asked the author to share how he did it.

M. A. Sholokhov. Portrait Of Zurab Tsereteli.

MK: When you have been looking for “and quiet flows the don”?

“I began a long investigation, when he was still alive Mikhail Sholokhov. Then the monograph, where the disputed its authorship, went far from Moscow. One of them is under the alias D* — was published through the efforts of Alexander Solzhenitsyn called “Stirrup “and quiet flows the don”. Another book was not written to conceal authorship, Roy Medvedev, at that time a dissident. Book D* came out in Paris, book Medvedev in London and Paris.

I completed the investigation in the years of perestroika and glasnost, when the myths about plagiarism novel openly began to multiply in Russia. Even in the homeland of Sholokhov, the don, published an article by associate Professor Rostov, tried to throw him off his pedestal. Before the collapse of the USSR, Leningrad TV, then broadcasts to the whole country, in the program “the Fifth wheel” 12 nights in a row rolled on the bones of the deceased Sholokhov, claiming that he had committed plagiarism. And wrote a novel allegedly Fyodor Kryukov, a forgotten writer, a native of the don. Me on this channel not allowed to show the manuscript “the quiet don”, which could even then put an end to the gossip.

MK: What explains the many opponents of the authorship of Sholokhov.

— The fact that the archive of the Pushkin house — Institute of Russian literature (Pushkin House), which is 137 pages of the manuscripts of the third and fourth books of the novel. But among them a single sheet of the first and second books of the novel no. Namely, these two volumes of “and quiet flows the don”, published in 1928, has spawned rumors and gossip about plagiarism.

…Following in the footsteps of Sholokhov in Moscow, where he lived in the 20‑ies, to find the manuscript failed shortly after the death of Mikhail Alexandrovich. In the spring of 1984 I saw the disappeared out of sight of the literary manuscripts of the first and second books of “the quiet don”. They were kept in the apartment of the widow of a war veteran Basil Kudasheva, who did not return from the war, writer, best friend Sholokhov. In his apartment in the passage of Artistic theatre Sholokhov left the manuscript, after it met with leaders of the Russian Association of proletarian writers in Moscow. They in 1928, denied the “Truth” libel about plagiarism.

For several years I have gone to the study of the life of Mikhail Alexandrovich in Moscow, searching for the homes where he lived before and after the revolution, in a meeting with his entourage, reading about the novel and study of the text. With great difficulty managed to make a copy — the copy machine in the USSR was under the control of state security, and the paper for them was not for sale — 1st part “and quiet flows the don”, and the second and third variants of the 1st part. Otkserit also page the 2nd, 3rd, 4th parts, forming two volumes of the novel.

MK: was made graphological analysis of the manuscripts?

— Yes, of course. Institute of judicial examinations of the Ministry of justice of the USSR conducted a handwriting analysis of the manuscript found. The conclusion was unequivocal: this autograph Sholokhov. The original document and a photocopy of the text I delivered in 1990, the Museum-reserve of M. A. Sholokhov.

The cover of the book. Artist E. V. Maksimenkova.

“MK”: Why just then the manuscript was not included in state archives?

— She didn’t want to leave the widow of Basil Kudasheva. The widow concealed the manuscript from the family of Sholokhov and didn’t want the publicity. And I did not allow to deal with files. As a member of “Moskovskaya Pravda”, organ of the Moscow city party and the city Council Executive Committee, I helped the widow and daughter Kudasheva to a new apartment in the South-West, to install a telephone, and only after that got a permanent tolerance to the folder with the manuscripts.

MK: Was aware of your investigation into the leadership of the state, because the West is constantly different “voice” was saying about plagiarism?

— Writing a book about the found manuscript, I reported them to the CPSU Central Committee. Met several times in the Old square with senior officials of the Department in charge of ideology, with the assistant Secretary-General Mikhail Gorbachev, academician Frolov, who reported to him the manuscripts. In this case, I always helped the writer Georgy Pryakhin, Deputy head of the Department of the CPSU Central Committee.

On the eve of the 85th anniversary of Mikhail Sholokhov, in may 1990, for the first time announced the opening of TASS, and the next day in “the Moscow truth” I published an article, “Here it is, the manuscript “the quiet don!”. Then I couldn’t say who has it. Family, where the archive is kept, tied up my word not to divulge the secret out of fear that autograph hunters will be out on the trail of helpless women, would deprive them of rest, and even manuscripts.

MK: How did your family react to the discovery of professional shalkovity?

— After the first media reports on the invitation of doctor of Philology Victor Petelin, head of the Sholokhov group in imli, the post I made in this Institute. After that I was officially invited to speak at the Institute of Russian literature. Head of the Department of Soviet literature, doctor of philological Sciences Natalya Separately stated Len-TASS: “This find is of huge magnitude, it is difficult to overestimate. “The quiet don” Sholokhov written by hand, for professionals this issue has been resolved for all.”

After the article was published in “Questions of literature” unexpectedly received from the US letter Princeton University Professor Herman Ermolaev, the largest sholohovich in the West, and Professor Brian Murphy, the translator of “the quiet don” in England. Herman Ermolaev wrote: “thank you for “the Manuscript “the quiet don”. This is a very valuable and interesting publication, a strong proof of the authorship of Sholokhov”. Professor Brian Murphy featured in “Russian journal” (New Slavonic Jornal) concluded: “In Moscow L. E. Kolodny seems to be finally put an end to the constant statements that Nobel has committed plagiarism”. He published his first book review in the London journal Slavonic and East European Review. But a single review in Moscow has not appeared so far.

“MK”: how to explain the strange silence of Newspapers and magazines?

— After the collapse of the Soviet Union five years I could not publish a book about the found manuscripts. I was denied publication in “Pravda” and “Izvestia” under the pretext that the article is large. Magazines “New world”, “October”, “Banner”, before each line of Sholokhov himself striving, rejected the manuscript. It gave me the magazine “don” and the Rostov publishing house, first proud of his countryman. Why? Communist Mikhail Sholokhov became objectionable to liberal reformers. The mouthpiece of perestroika “Ogonyok” magazine Deputy editor, a former student of my course and seminar at the faculty of journalism of Moscow state University Minaev, frankly said: “We would have printed your article with joy, if the author “the quiet don” was Fyodor Kryukov.

My book was released only in 2005, on the 90th anniversary of the author “the quiet don”, thanks to writer Peter Aleshkin, the Director created the private publishing house “the Voice.” In addition to the analysis and photocopies of the manuscript of the novel it includes correspondence with Sholokhov, a member of the Communist party since 1903, Evgenia Levitskaya. She dedicated the “Destiny of man”.

“MK: did Sholokhov that the manuscript is from the widow of Basil Kudasheva?

— Yes, he knew well, where and from whom the manuscript was kept in Moscow. Matilda emelyanovna Kudasheva cherished her as the Apple of his eye. In a bomb shelter during the raids on Moscow left, holding in one hand, daughter in the other — “Quiet flows the don”. To take the most precious thing left in the widow’s best friend, could not Mikhail. At her question about the manuscript: “Mike, where to put them?” — replied: “Wherever you want. Ordered myself…”

MK: How has the fate of manuscripts after the death of the widow and daughter of Basil Kudasheva?

— Their apartment along with the archive passed into the hands of the successor, a certain Olga K. is Not associated more word, I’m in “Izvestia” reported that the manuscript was kept in the family of the deceased in the war other Sholokhov. Who it was, all shalkovity knew.

The heiress agreed to sell the manuscript of the novel and the entire archive of over 50 thousand dollars. Russian Academy of Sciences appealed to the head of the government Vladimir Putin for assistance. The manuscript, thanks to Viktor S. Chernomyrdin, has been found in the archive of world literature. All is good! But after that, a wave of publications, all of which recognized: “Until recently no one has seen the manuscripts, did not know where they are, not holding them in my hands. And only at the end of 1999, the Institute of world literature named. Gorky RAS was able not only to detect but also Photocopying these manuscripts, after which he appealed to the government of the Russian Federation with a letter: “After many years of research the Institute of world literature named. A. M. Gorky Russian Academy of Sciences was able to track down the lost manuscript of the first and second books of “the quiet don”.

The question is, whose manuscripts I have seen and held in hand for fifteen years prior to this application? What was reported to the CPSU? Whose photocopies gave imli, where he has performed? What he wrote in “Questions of literature”? As reported by Professor Murphy in the West?

…When “the Quiet don” has been found in the archive of world literature, Director of the Institute he took up the manuscript of the novel. Sholokhov group disbanded. Its leader Viktor Petelin was forced to leave the Institute. About the fictions of the Director in his fundamental book “the Life of Sholokhov” wrote: “Kuznetsov said that imli supposedly found the manuscript “the quiet don” in 1999. The media spread around the world the sensation of the Director of imli, although the manuscript for many years before he found Leo Kolodny. This is a major discovery of the twentieth century in the field of silohouette, a profound shift in the direction of clarification of many issues”.

In reprinted in 2000 book, I put 125 photocopied pages of drafts, giving a complete picture of who, when and how the novel was written.

MK: have you Received any official recognition?

— Yes, not immediately, but received. After a quarter-century after the discovery of the manuscripts of the leaders of the branch of historical-philological Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences academicians A. P. Derevyanko, A. B. Kudelin recognized my priorities, “extremely thorough”, and RAS President academician Y. S. Osipov, this fact was regarded as a “huge achievement”. His letter is published in my book.

Last, 2015, the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation for this work awarded me an Honorary diploma…

Quieter and less frequent voices fans of plagiarism. It was time when speaking in public, about the plagiarism of the novel becomes indecent.

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