The historian told how 70 years ago of Crimea deported Armenians, Bulgarians and Greeks
24 Jun 2014, 22:30
Text: Svetlana Sergienko,
“The first from the territory of the Crimea Peninsula at the beginning of the great Patriotic war were expelled ethnic Germans”, – said the newspaper LOOK historian Vyacheslav Zarubin, commenting on the 70th anniversary of the deportation of the peoples who lived on the Peninsula. He spoke about how the NKVD carried out this operation and what kind of people it affected the most.
On Tuesday in Crimea, said the funeral date – the 70th anniversary of the deportation of the representatives of the Armenian, Bulgarian and Greek communities (their exile fell on 24-27 June 1944). Day of memory of victims of deportation in Crimea found on may 18, when the Tatars were deported, but for various peoples dates were different. So, for the German community of Crimea this August 18, 1941. And for the Italian community – 29 Jan, 8-10 Feb 1942.
We will remind, one month after the return of the Crimea to Russia President Vladimir Putin on April 21 issued a decree “On rehabilitation of Armenian, Bulgarian, Greek, Crimean Tatar and German peoples and state support for their revival and development”. The decree envisages assistance in the establishment and development of national-cultural autonomies, other public associations and organizations of peoples who have suffered from mass repressions of the 40-ies.
This is the document that the Crimea was waiting for 70 years, said the Agency “Kriminform” new Crimean Senator Olga Cowicide. “I am a family member deported, and the signing of a decree to me, a very important event. The President of Russia Vladimir Putin has done over the last month that Ukraine was not able to do in 23 years”, – said Cowicide.
The document defines specific measures aimed at the development of cultural, spiritual and social aspects of each of the deported peoples, she said. “In the decree contains all the formerly deported peoples of Crimea. This suggests that the Crimean Tatars, Armenians, Greeks, Germans and Bulgarians will be together today to solve the issues that are socially important”, – said Cowicide.
As the newspaper VIEW, in may, on the eve of the 70th anniversary of the deportation of one of the victims of repression of the peoples – Tatar, Vladimir Putin also discussed with representatives of Tatar community of the solutions to the problems of the Crimea.
About how 70 years was Stalin’s deportation of the Crimean peoples three, in an interview with the newspaper LOOK told the Deputy Chairman of the Republican Committee of Crimea on cultural heritage protection, former member of the Supreme Council of Crimea (1991-1994), Professor-historian Vyacheslav Zarubin.
OPINION: Vyacheslav Georgievich, it is known that the ethnic cleansing under Stalin suffered primarily Crimean Tatars. Why much less is known about other deportation of the Crimean peoples?
Vyacheslav Zarubin (photo: monuments-crimea.gov.ua)
Vyacheslav Zarubin: Today special rights to the concept have deported the Crimean Tatars: they are all these years, organized protests, engaged in the squatting of land. While the vast majority of they have already used the rights to free land.
But the deported Greeks and Armenians in the Crimea was much less than the Tatars, at the same time, even organizing a national community and society, they act quite civilized methods, without providing Crimean authorities with ultimatums all these years. In places of compact residence of the deported Greeks represented by only a few streets where they have built dozens of their homes. The Armenians practically do not show their rights to compensation of property and the allocation of free land plots – cost assistance from the Diaspora living in different countries of the world.
The same can be said about the rest of the representatives of deported peoples who cope on their own, behind the assertiveness of the Crimean Tatars and has the right to be called the titular nation of the Crimea.
It may be noted that the transfer of the Peninsula to Russia, according to the head of the German society of Crimea, about 450 families of the deported Germans from families expressed a desire to return and settle on the Peninsula.
OPINION: What ethnic group was subjected to the first link?
V. Z.: If we take the historical truth, the first from the territory of the Crimea Peninsula at the beginning of the great Patriotic war were expelled ethnic Germans. Too swift advance of Hitler’s army in the summer of 1941 forced the Stalinist regime to hold a rally, which was included in the package of measures for the defense of the Peninsula, – the operation to evict the Germans. Directive Bet it sounded like this: “to immediately clear the territory of the Peninsula from local residents-Germans and other anti-Soviet elements”. In the end, from the Crimea were deported 52 thousand people of German nationality.
After the Germans early in the war, when the Kerch Peninsula was temporarily liberated by the red army from the Crimea were deported Italians living in the area of Kerch. I must say that before the war, their presence in the region, home to about 1,500 people, there was even an Italian kolkhoz Sacco and Vanzetti.
OPINION: IN may 1944, occurred the deportation of the Crimean Tatars, which spoke very much to this day, but after it was the turn of other national groups. What were the reasons the Stalinist leadership to expel the Armenians and the Bulgarians?
V. Z.: the people’s Commissar of internal Affairs Beria was reported to Stalin: “After the eviction of the Crimean Tatars in Crimea continues to work on the identification and confiscation by the NKVD of the USSR for anti-Soviet elements… On the territory of Crimea is considered currently a resident of the Bulgarians – 12 075, Greek – 14 300, Armenians 9 919” (and in 1939 among the inhabitants of the Peninsula were: Bulgarians – 15 353, 1.4% of the total population, Greeks – 20 652, 1,8%, Armenians – 12 873, 1.1 percent).
But then followed itself “indictment”: “during the German occupation of significant part of Bulgarian population actively participated in the ongoing German making bread and food for the German army, contributed to the German military authorities in the detection and detention of soldiers of the red army and Soviet partisans, were “security certificate” from the German high command. Germans organized police units from Bulgaria, and was conducted among the Bulgarian population recruited to be sent to work in Germany”.
The Greeks Beria wrote: “the Greek population lives in most parts of the Crimea. A significant part of the Greeks, especially in coastal cities, with the arrival of the invaders engaged in trade and small industry. German authorities assisted Greeks in trade, transportation of goods, etc.”. Here you have all the “charges” that are clearly not pull collaborationist.
About the Armenian Beria, reported: “the Armenian population living in most areas of the Crimea. Large settlements with the Armenian population there. The Germans organized the Armenian Committee actively collaborated with the Germans, and spent most anti-Soviet work”.
OPINION: the Armenian ethnos, as is known, the Nazis considered “friendly”. They even decided to form an Armenian Legion.
V. Z.: In Simferopol there was a German intelligence organization “Dromedar”, headed by former Dashnak General DRO (Drastamat Kanayan), who managed the intelligence work against the red army and to this end has created several committees for espionage and subversive work in the rear of the red army, to promote the organization of volunteer Armenian legions. The Armenian national committees with active participation arrived from Berlin and Istanbul immigrants worked on the promotion of the idea of independent Armenia.
In addition, there was the so-called Armenian religious communities, which, in addition to religious and political issues, engaged in the organization among the Armenians of Commerce and small industry. These organizations provided aid to the Germans, especially through the collection of funds for military purposes in Germany.”
Armenian organizations and was formed so-called Armenian Legion, which was maintained at the expense of the Armenian communities”. And the conclusion Beria was as follows: “the NKVD considers it appropriate to carry out the eviction from the territory of the Crimea of all Bulgarians, Greeks, Armenians”. And it had to do with partisans, underground fighters, to the persons, absolutely not stained themselves by collaborating with the occupiers. On 2 June 1944, Stalin signed a secret decree on “additional” eviction 37 thousand people, “German collaborators” from among Bulgarians, Greeks and Armenians”.
By the way, among the 330 deported in 1944 from Crimea Germans, Austrians, Hungarians, Romanians, Italians, who lived at that time in the Crimea, was a Frenchman, and about 1000… prostitutes. And it wasn’t literally prostitutes – they were women, sozialstaatliche with the Germans during the occupation. Also among the deported from the Peninsula in 1944, together with the Crimean Tatars were local Turks and Gypsies, some of the Karaites.
OPINION: how the NKVD treated with mixed families?
V. Z.: there was in the statistics of the NKVD, the concept of “other” – these were the members of mixed families. For example, if the husband was an Armenian, and his wife is Russian, both were counted as Armenians. But if her husband – Russian, wife is Armenian, both were considered “other”.
At the same time, in June 1944, Beria “revealed” in the Crimea 310 local families of Turkish, Greek and Iranian nationality, which had expired Turkish, Greek and Iranian passports. They were deported as “undesirable” in one of the regions of the Uzbek SSR.
So, in March 1949, among the deportees, Crimean troops, not part of “the other”, there were 2882 representative of different nationalities, including Russian 1917, 340 Ukrainians, 311 Gypsies, Karaites 30, 27 Germans, poles 27, 25 Turkmens, Turks 20, 17 Jews, Belarusians 12, 10 Kalmykov, 9 Czechs, Moldovans 7, 5 Lezgin, 3 Austrian, 3 Latvians, 3 Estonians, 3 Kazakhs, 2 Albanians, 2 Assyrian, 2 trot, 2 Bashkir, 2 Hungarian, 2 Romanian, 1 Azerbaijani, 1 Frenchman and 99 mysterious “other”.
The operation to expel the Bulgarians, Greeks, Armenians and nepodlinnyh ended June 27, 1944. People were given a few hours to pack, and then in freight cars, under the protection of machine gunners, they were sent into exile.
On 4 July, Beria reported to Stalin that the eviction of the Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians, Greeks, Armenians finished. Just evicted 009 225 people, including Tatars – 183 155, Bulgarians – 12 422, Greek – 040 15, Armenian – 9621, Germans – 1119, nepodlinnyh – 3652 people. From the “summary” followed by: “When conducting the operation to evict on the ground and in the path of the incident was not”. After the expulsion from the Crimea for the fronts were issued special orders about dismissal from ranks of the red army soldiers of the nationalities subject to expulsion and sending them to banishment. This applies to all but the senior officers who were not officers.
According to March 1949, from among the Crimean deportees, previously served in the red army was, the Greeks – 559, Bulgarians – 582, Armenians – 574, other – 184. So, by October, 1948, to banishment additionally received 7219 people, returnees, demobilized and other.
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on March 27, 1956 issued a decree “On lifting restrictions in the legal status of Greeks, Bulgarians, Armenians and members of their families who were on the banishment” because the restrictions “are not caused by necessity.”
However, it was established that removing these restrictions does not entail the return of citizens of these nationalities property, “confiscated during the eviction, and that they can’t return to domicile in the Crimean oblast,” what with former deportees were taken even receipts.
Alexander Iskandaryan, Director of Caucasus Institute (Yerevan), the analyst
Crimea is the land where Armenians have lived since ancient times. In Crimea preserved medieval Armenian monuments – a fairly early and very valuable, in the territory of the Crimea created the figures of pan-Armenian culture, there lived and worked the people who were United by the Armenian and Russian culture. Yes Aivazovsky, for example, an ethnic Armenian, and at the same time and the Crimea, and at the same time made an enormous contribution to the development of Russian school of painting and marine industry in General. In Crimea and now there are Armenians, there are Armenian schools, as far as I know. And if it is possible to preserve and develop all that legacy, then, of course, it’s great.
April 21, Putin issued a decree “On rehabilitation of Armenian, Bulgarian, Greek, Crimean Tatar and German peoples and state support for their revival and development”. In General, the possibility of the development of national cultures of peoples, including Diaspora, in the territories of different States, including in Russia, naturally, should be assessed very positively. Armenians, to a great extent living in the Diaspora. Outside of Armenia Armenians live more than within it, so in Armenia welcome the opportunity to develop the structure, language, to preserve the monuments. This is very important, when Armenians try to do it in different countries.
The eviction of people and in General to any punishment people on a group basis, that is, not for their crimes, and for ethnicity, because of their membership in a particular nation, when evicted along with the children, the elderly and so on, can be treated in a unique way. Deportation is a crime.
The deportation of the Armenians was carried out in a number of other deportations. If to speak about Crimea, the Tatars, Bulgarians, Greeks and Armenians. He was exiled and peoples of the North Caucasus – the Karachai, Chechens, Ingush, Kalmyks. Evicted and Volga Germans, and Koreans…
Today in Armenia, of course, there are people who know about it, but I would not say that this knowledge is wide. Unlike peoples who were evicted as a whole, such as the Chechens, Ingush, and so on, whose memory the eviction of the preserved mass. The Armenians were only deported from the same region, and to say that it is so widely known in modern-day Armenia, don’t // LOOK.<URL>
Ruben Safrastyan, Director of the Institute of Oriental studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, doctor of historical Sciences, Professor
My grandfather in 1949, was subjected to the link, only returned in 1955. Many of the Armenian family – be it in the Crimea, whether in another place felt that such deportation, many families it affected. But youth is hardly a good idea, need to write more.
The Armenians lived in the Crimea for a long time, since the Middle ages, and played a major role in the life of the Peninsula, mainly in cultural life. The deportation caused damage to the community, but traces remain, and the monuments were left as a testimony to the enormous contribution to the life of the Crimea.
The deportation is part of the policy of repression, which was used in the USSR, including, of course, the deportation of peoples – not only of Armenians.
The decree of the President of Russia on elimination of the consequences of deportation contributes to the fact that the lives of the Armenians will be revived, the Armenians, as before, will play a big role in the life of the Crimea // SIGHT.<URL>