The Russian leadership has to veterans of the great Patriotic war, a considerable support of a very different nature. A similar practice exists in Western countries, albeit with certain differences. On the eve of the great holiday – Victory Day, it is interesting to compare the approaches to this issue, and at the same time to find out how many world war II veterans left in Russia now.
The main difference of the Russian system of state support of participants of the great Patriotic war from the systems of other countries winners of the Second world war is the absence in Russia a special Department – no one single centre in charge of the problems of veterans. It kompensiruet broad interpretation of the concept “veteran”, the regular indexation of payments and the extended list of benefits, however, some of them reach their destination with great difficulty. For example, a program to provide housing for all veterans, launched in 2008, has not been completed so far.
“If on April 1, 2014 veterans and persons equated to them, there were about 3 million people, on 1 March this year they left 2.1 million people”
The fact that Russia was a major battleground of the Second world outlined a very broad interpretation of the term “war party”. Right to various forms of social support in the country have not only direct participants in hostilities and disabled veterans, but also the former minor prisoners of fascism, persons who worked during the war on objects of air defense, residents of besieged Leningrad, the widow of the deceased and the deceased participants of war and workers of rear and full age prisoners of fascism. The last category is the most numerous, two years ago she totaled 1,868 million people.
In General, over the last two years the number of veterans of the great Patriotic war and members of their families in Russia decreased by almost a third. If on April 1, 2014, according to the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation, there were about 3 million people (including almost 195 thousand direct participants of the war), on March 1 this year, there are only 2.1 million people.
The primary Agency which has the social security of veterans of the great Patriotic war, is the Ministry of labour and social development of the Russian Federation, which regularly produces the indexation of pensions and other monthly payments. Last year the Ministry reported that in comparison with 2010 total monthly payments to war veterans was increased 2.2 times (up to 33-44 thousand rubles), and the participants of the war – more than 1.5 times (up to 19 to 32 thousand rubles). The war veterans with disabilities, disabled veterans, parents and widows of dead soldiers, the citizens awarded by a sign “Inhabitant of blockade Leningrad” and with disabilities, are entitled to simultaneous receipt of two pensions – labor pensions and old-age pensions under state pension provision. In 2014, monthly monetary payments to veterans and families of dead veterans had been budgeted 72,4 billion roubles.
Myths and truth about the great Otechestvennaia indexation of monthly monetary payments to veterans and war invalids in the amount of 7% occurred on 1 February this year. “Next year, the indexation will also be from February 1 in all categories, there is no relief there,” – said a month ago, labor Minister Maxim Topilin during the course of conference calls meetings with the regions, devoted to the Victory Day celebration. In this case, before 1 September of the Ministry of labour jointly with the Ministry of health plan to approve an updated methodology for providing social and medical care for veterans at home.
In addition, in Russia there is a significant amount of benefits prescribed by the Federal law “On veterans” and numerous additions to it. In particular, it is 50% benefits for housing and utility services, preferential rights to enter into various associations and all types of services to cultural and educational institutions, the right to reception in residential homes outside the queue and to receive social assistance at home – and so on. In addition, almost every year, veterans receive state benefits on the eve of Victory Day. For example, the Railways traditionally provides war veterans and their accompanying persons right to free travel on the territory of Russia.
Most famous in this list of benefits was entitled to a one-time grant to veterans housing at the expense of means of the Federal budget on the basis of the presidential decree of 7 may 2008. But eight years later this privilege were able to take advantage far not all participants of the war. A few days ago, the Minister of construction and housing Russian Mikhail Men reported that as of April 1 are not provided with housing 10 336 war veterans, including 1297 of the disabled and war veterans. Until the end of the year it is planned to provide housing for about 8.5 thousand people, for this purpose in the budget more than 10 billion rubles. All in all since the signing of the decree, according to Vice-Premier of the Russian government Olga Golodets, the apartments were almost 292 thousand people were expended for this purpose 307,2 bn.
The experience of the allies
In comparison with other countries-the victors of the Second world war the Russian system of state support for veterans is relatively young. In the U.S., for example, the social security of veterans is engaged in a special Department, created in 1930 (since 1989 it is part of the Federal government as the Ministry). Official sketch of the history of the Department begins with the words that in the USA there is the most comprehensive system of assistance to veterans in the world. The entire us health care system for this population includes 152 hospitals, 800 outpatient clinics, and 126 units for home care. Medical care for disability or disease resulting from military service, U.S. veterans free of charge. The structure of the Department of veterans Affairs United States has about 280 thousand people – more significant state in the American government only has the Pentagon.
Foundations of assistance to veterans of the Second world war were laid by a special law, signed by President Franklin Roosevelt in June 1944. At that time the fronts were about 16 million Americans. The most popular event in the framework of the program was free education, which received about 8 million participants of the Second world war. In addition, they developed a program for the acquisition of property concessional loan, which by 1952 was used by 2.4 million people. Benefits for veterans (not just world war II) in the United States also include disability compensation, special allowances to their pensions (up to $ 2,000 per month), insurance, and funeral expenses. There is also a special benefit for those veterans of the Second world war, who have income from other benefits in the amount of at least 75% of the average for the country (733 dollar in 2016).
According to the Department of veterans Affairs, by 2016 in the U.S. there are only 697,8 thousand veterans of the Second world war, most war veterans were living in the southern States – Florida (65 thousand people) and California (61.9 thousand people). Over the past decade, the living veterans of the war in the United States has decreased by almost five times – in 2006, there were about 3 million people, that is, on an average day die 430 participants in the war. However, even after their remains (according to estimates, this will occur by 2036), their immediate family members will continue to receive compensation from the Federal government’s long-standing practice in the US. For example, the last American member of the First world war died in 2011, but as of 2013 the widows and children of veterans received about 16.5 million dollars a year. Just compensation to the relatives of veterans of the Second world war, wars in Korea, Vietnam, Kuwait, Iraq and Afghanistan in fiscal 2013 in the United States spent 6.7 billion dollars.
In the UK the state support of veterans is engaged in a Department of defense – Agency for military and veterans (Veterans UK). As in the United States, here is the fundamental differences between the state support of the veterans of world war II and other military conflicts in which Britain participated. In particular, all the disabled of hostilities and their widows subject to the so-called Compensation scheme Armed forces and reserve (AFCS), which entered into force in April 2005. As of the end of March this year of the disability pension received 116 thousand British veterans, the average weekly payment for total incapacity amounted to 382 pounds.
Special compensation for veterans of the Second world war in the UK is provided in respect of former soldiers who were in Japanese captivity. In November 2000, all surviving former prisoners of war was adopted as a one-time government payment of 10 thousand pounds.
In France, the main Agency in charge of veterans ‘ problems is also the Ministry of defence, and some time ago (in 2010-2012) it was even called the Ministry of defence and veterans Affairs. Since 1920 when it there is a special post of state Secretary on Affairs of veterans and the memory of the war years. This first position was occupied by the French politician Andre Maginot, a member of the First world war, during which France, in fact, was the most affected countries. Since 2011, French state Secretary for veteran Affairs and remembrance is Jean-Marc, Todeschini, a member of the Socialist party, the former Senator of the Moselle Department. Last year the number of living veterans of the Second world in France was estimated at 800 thousand people, including former military (500 thousand), participants of the Resistance movement (200 thousand) and deported to Germany (100 thousand). In addition, the category of veterans referred former prisoners of war (1.8 million people).
Examples of certain state structures of veterans Affairs has and the former Soviet Union, e.g. Georgia. In Russia, the relevant proposals are put forward for a long time. For example, two years ago in the Russian Public chamber discussed the initiative of the appearance in Russia of a new Federal authority which would be responsible for support of military veterans. The main supporters of the creation of such a structure under the Ministry of defense were made by the heads of various veterans ‘ organizations. Since then, however, further discussion is not advanced.Related posts: