100 years ago, was born the Creator of the IQ test Hans jürgen Eysenck — a British scientist-psychologist. Whether to measure the intellect of man, the Nazis, Africans, sex and fascination with astrology, says the Department of science “Газеты.Ru”.
In March 1916, in a German family of actors of the silent cinema was born Hans jürgen Eysenck — future scientist-psychologist and one of the leaders of biology in psychology. In his youth, Eysenck strongly was fond of astrology, especially horoscopes.
It is known that the young man had even sent the horoscopes of the leaders of the Nazi party of Germany.
Love pseudoscience is out soon — and a few years later Eysenck emigrated to England, where he entered the faculty of psychology. Becoming a doctor of philosophy and sociology, Hans was engaged in numerous studies — in particular, he studied the psychological differences between different races. “When I began studying psychology, she was completely defective. Now its reputation thanks to my work fully restored,” — said about himself a scientist.
Soon Isaac has created the IQ test, which still remains one of the most popular in the world (with one of them, for example, can be found at this link).
Interestingly, in 1971, during one of his public lectures, psychologist pelted with eggs for the claim that IQ of Africans on average 15 points lower than whites because of the characteristics of genocide.
Actually the first idea of creation of the intellectual tests were put forward not by Eysenck, and the English scientist sir Francis bacon. Bacon believed that mental abilities are transmitted from parents to children. However, to date, proved that in addition to genetics on the level of IQ is influenced by many factors: age, nutrition, social environment.
And recently a group of Danish scientists found that the disease caused by penetration into the organism of pathogenic microbes, viruses, and prions that can adversely affect the cognitive abilities of people, which is reflected in the decline in their IQ. Researchers have shown that the more people postponed infectious diseases, the stronger drops his IQ.
And another group of scientists found that brain function improves with regular sex.
According to experts from the University of Maryland, sex stimulates the formation of new neurons in the hippocampus — the part of the brain which plays a key role in the mechanisms of memory. Scientists even conducted an interesting experiment during which rats from the first group had sex for 30 minutes a day, and another group of rats were not allowed to indulge in amorous pleasures. The results showed that sexually active rodents the formation of neurons proceeded much more intense.
However, the positive effect is stopped as soon as sex stopped being regular.
Many scientists are skeptical about IQ tests and think that they can not be trusted. For example, the English theoretical physicist and science popularizer Stephen Hawking has repeatedly stated that he is not interesting at the level of their IQ. In society a long-established myth that the IQ of Hawking — one of the highest in the world. Up this theme and, in particular, in one of the episodes of the TV series “the Simpsons”. In the story, the intellectuals start arguing with each other, one of them brilliant — but then appears on stage Hawking and arrogantly declares that dissatisfied with them all.
By the way, at the end of the series Steven saves Lisa from death with the help of his super-chairs, and steals Homer’s idea of a donut Universe.
According to Stanislav Drobyshevsky, PhD, associate Professor of anthropology of the biological faculty of Moscow state University. M. V. Lomonosov, “on IQ tests cannot be trusted because, first, there is no normal definition of intelligence and, therefore, measures its dimensions, and secondly, these tests only evaluate the proximity check to verify”.
On the Internet for a long time walks this joke: “a high performance test Eysenck show is not about the human intellect, but only on its ability well to take tests on IQ”. And even in the world wide web there are many tales about a certain society, uniting people with a high IQ.
However, scientists believe that evaluate intellectual abilities can still be. “The English psychologist Charles Spearman (the same one that is most known for the development of a statistical rank correlation test) made the observation that people have abilities in different, seemingly not related areas positively Corellian, — says the candidate of biological Sciences, senior researcher of the Institute of information transmission problems of RAS Alexander Pankin. — Roughly speaking: a capable person is capable in many respects. Spearman suggested that there is some factor that well characterize the General ability of a person. This factor was subsequently named “g-factor”.
It later emerged that the “g-factor” largely an inherited trait, is associated with the size of certain parts of the brain and some other biological indicators, and measurement of this factor are very good in predicting success in education, employment and other spheres of social activity.
The “g-factor” is stable in different populations, using different tests. You need to understand that, of course, a single number cannot accurately reflect the level of intellectual development of man, there are a host of other important factors. But at the moment the use of “g-factor” for an objective assessment of intellectual abilities of people seems to me to be the most promising approach. Better than nothing”.